--------------------------------------------  REFERENCES  --------------------------------------------
[ page update: 2019-VI-13 ]

On this page we include full citations for publications referenced on the pages associated with this Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica - Editio Secunda website. We also include citations for important historical and more recent works focusing on the taxonomy, systematics, physiology, distribution, and ecology of oligochaetes.  Citations in blue are linked to pdfs of the papers, or to their availability from open access journals and other literature websites. Citations for other important publications will be added here soon.  Many of the memoria and obituaries for oligochaetologists highlighted on the Dedicatio page of this website include citations for their research papers, books, and other published contributions to science.


Beddard, F.E. 1895. A monograph of the Order Oligochaeta. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.
     i-xii + 769 pp. + 5 plates.

Blakemore, R.J. 2013. The major megadrile families of the World reviewed again on their taxonomic
     types (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea).
Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 44(2): 107-127.

Blakemore, R.J. 2013. Restoration of London type of first earthworm – Lumbricus terrestris
     Linnaeus, 1758 (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae), and setting aside of a ‘neo-neotype’. 
     Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 44(2): 211-212.

Boros, G., and E. Sherlock. 2010. Catalogue of the enchytraeid worm collection (Oligochaeta:
     Enchytraeidae) of the Natural History Museum in London. I. Spirit collection.

   
 Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 41(1): 19-27.   

Brinkhurst, R O. 1988. A taxonomic analysis of the Haplotaxidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta).
     Canadian Journal of Zoology 66(10):2243-2252. ^

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1989. A phylogenetic analysis of the Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta).
     Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 2731-2739.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1994. Evolutionary relationships within Clitellata: an update. Megadrilogica 5(10):
     109-116.

Brinkhurst, R.O., and B.G.M. Jamieson. 1971. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world. Univ. Toronto
     Press, Buffalo, New York. 860 pp. [Out of print; a classic reference if you can find a used copy].


Brinkhurst, R.O., and M.J. Wetzel. 1984. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world: Supplement. Canadian
     Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 44. v + 101 pp.

Čekanovskaya, O.V. 1962. The aquatic Oligochaeta of the U.S.S.R. [Vodnye Maloshchetinkovye
     Chervy Fauni SSSR]. Key to the Fauna of the USSR 78. Akademiya Nauk SSSR Publishers,
     Moscow, Leningrad. [Translated from Russian, published for the United States Department of the
     Interior and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt.
     Ltd., New Delhi, India. TT 74-52039].  3-411 xxiv + 513 pp.  [also, Opred. Faune. S.S.S.R. 3-411]

Claparède, E.R. 1862. Recherches anatomiques sur les oligochètes. Mémoires de la Société de
     Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève 16(2): 217-291 + 4 plates.

Coates, K.A. 1986.  Redescription of the oligochaete genus Propappus, and diagnosis of the new
     family Propappidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington
     99(3): 417-428. [ Propappidae - new family, p. 415 ]

Csuzdi, C. 2012. Earthworm species, a searchable database. Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest)
     43(1): 97-99.

Dózsa-Farkas, K. 1992. List of enchytraeid synonyma. Newsletter on Enchytraeidae 3: 16-46.

Dugès, A. 1828. Récherches sur la circulation, la respiration, et la reproduction des Annelides
     abranches. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris 1, 15: 284-337.

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1828. Symbolae physicae seu icoes et descriptiones animalia evertebrata.
     Animalia evertebrata. Phytozoa. Decas, vol. 1.  Berolini, Berlin, Germany. 1-293 pp.

Envall, I., M. Källersjö, and C. Erséus. 2006. Molecular evidence for the non-monophyletic status of
     Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 570-584.

Erséus, C. 1990. Cladistic analysis of the subfamilies within the Tubificidae (Oligochaeta).
     Zoologica Scripta 19: 57-63.

Erséus, C. 1999. Parvidrilus strayeri, a new genus and species, an enigmatic interstitial clitellate
     from underground waters in Alabama. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington
     112(2):327-337 [ Parvidrilidae - new family, p. 328 ]

Erséus, C. 2005. Phylogeny of oligochaetous Clitellata. Hydrobiologia 535/536: 357-372.

Erséus, C., I. Envall, M. Marchese, and L. Gustavsson. 2010. The systematic position of
     Opistocystidae Annelida, Clitellata) revealed by DNA data.
Molecular Phylogenetics and
     Evolution 54: 309-313.

Erséus, C. and L. Gustavsson. 2002. A proposal to regard the former family Naididae as a subfamily
     within Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata). Hydrobiologia, 485: 253-254.

Erséus, C., L. Gustavsson, and R.O. Brinkhurst, R.O. 2005. Case 3305. Tubificidae Vejdovský,
     1876 (Annelida, Clitellata): proposed precedence over Naididae Ehrenberg, 1828. Bulletin of
     Zoological Nomenclature 62: 226-231.

Erséus, C., M. Källersjö, M. Ekman, M., and R. Hovmöller, R. 2002. 18S rDNA phylogeny of the 
     Tubificidae (Clitellata) and its constituent taxa: dismissal of the Naididae. Molecular Phylogenetics
     and Evolution 22: 414-422.

Erséus, C., M. J. Klinth, E. Rota, P. De Wit, D.R. Gustavsson, and S. Martinsson. 2019. The
     popular model annelid Enchytraeus albidus is only one species in a complex of seashore white
     worms (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 19(2): 105-133; the on-line version
     includes supplementary material. ^

Erséus, C., T. Prestegaard, and M. Källersjö, M. 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tubificidae 
     (Annelida, Clitellata) based on 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 
     15: 381-389.

Erséus, C., M.J. Wetzel, and L. Gustavsson. 2008. ICZN rules - a farewell to Tubificidae
     (Annelida, Clitellata). 
Zootaxa 1744: 66-68. ^

Fend, S.V. and R.O. Brinkhurst. 2010. Contributions towards a review of the genus Rhynchelmis
     Hoffmeister (Clitellata: Lumbriculidae).  Zootaxa 2407: 1-27. ^

Gates, G.E. 1962. On some earthworms of Eisen's collections. Proceedings of the California
     Academy of Sciences, Zoology (4), 31: 185-225.

Gates, G.E. 1972. Burmese earthworms. An introduction to the systematics of megadrile
     oligochaetes with special references to south-east Asia. Trans. American Philos. Soc. 62(7): 1-326.

Gates, G.E. 1982. Farewell to North American megadriles. Megadrilogica 4(1-2): 12-77.

Graefe, U. and J. Römbke. 1985. Checklist of new taxa 1960-1985. Newsletter on Enchytraeidae
     1: 2-15.

Grube, E. [1850] 1851. Die Familien der Anneliden, mit Angabe ihrer Gattungen und Arten. Ein
     Systematischer Versuchungen.  Verlag der Nicolai’schen Buchhandlung, Berlin. 1-164.

Hemprich, F.G., and C.G. Ehrenberg. 1831. In Ehrenberg, C. G. 1828 and 1831. Symbolae
     Physicae, seu leones et descriptiones Corporum Naturalium novorum aut minus cognitorum,
     quae ex itineribus  per Libyam, Aegyptum, Nubiam, Dongelam, Syriam, Arabiam et Habessiniam.
     Berolini.

Holmquist, C. 1985.  A revision of the genera Tubifex Lamark, Ilyodrilus Eisen, and Potamothrix 
     Vejdovský & Mrázek (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae), with extensions to some connected genera.
     Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, Jena,
     112(3): 311-366. 

Hrabě, S. 1982. Contribution to the knowledge of Oligochaeta from the Lake Baikal. Věstník
     Československé Společnosti Zoologické 46(3): 174-193.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 1999. International Code of
     Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed.
Published by the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature,
     c/o The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. xxix +
     306 pp. [provisions of this Code supersede those of previous editions with effect from 1 January
     2000]. ^

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 2007. Opinion 2167 (Case 3305).
     Naididae Ehrenberg, 1828 (Annelida, Clitellata): precedence over Tubificidae Vejdovský, 1876
     maintained. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64: 71-72. ^

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 2018. Opinion 2423 (Case 3689)
     – Cognettia Nielsen & Christensen, 1959 (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae): conditional
     precedence given over Euenchytraeus Bretscher, 1906 and Chamaedrilus Friend, 1913.
     Bulletin of
 Zoological Nomenclature 75 (31 December 2018): 279-281. ZooBank. ^

James, S.L. 2012. Re-erection of Rhinodrilidae (Benham, 1890, a senior synonym of Pontoscolecidae
     James, 2012 (Annelida: Clitellata). Zootaxa 3540: 67-68. [ Rhinodrilidae - new family, p. 67 ]

James, S.W., M.L.C. Bartz, D.W.G. Stanton, A.C. Conrado, L. Dupont, S. Taheri, E. Da Silva,
     and G.G. Brown.
2019. A neotype for Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857) (Clitellata).
     Zootaxa 4545(1): 124-132; ZooBank. ^

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1978. Phylogenetic and phenetic systematics of the opisthoporous Oligochaeta
     (Annelida: Clitellata). Evolutionary Theory 3(4):195-233.

Jamieson, B.G.M., C. Erséus, and M. Ferraguti. 1987. Parsimony analysis of the phylogeny of
     some Oligochaeta (Annelida) using spermatozoal ultrastructure. Cladistics 3: 145-155.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta.
     Cladistics 4: 367-410.

Jamieson, B.G.M., S. Tillier, A. Tillier, J.-L. Justine, E. Ling, K. McDonald, and A.F. Hugall. 2002. 
     Phylogeny of the Megascolecidae and Crassiclitellata (Annelida, Oligochaeta): combined versus
     partitioned analysis using nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S) rDNA. Zoosystema 24:
     707-734.

de Jong, Yd., et al. 2015. PESI – a taxonomic backbone for Europe.
      Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e5848.

Klinth M.J., S. Martinsson, and C. Erséus. 2017. Phylogeny and species delimitation of North
     European 
Lumbricillus (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae). Zoologica Scripta 46: 96–110.

Klinth, M.J., E. Rota, and C. Erséus. 2017. Taxonomy of North European Lumbricillus (Clitellata,
     Enchytraeidae). ZooKeys 703: 15–96.

Lamarck, J.B. 1816. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres 3. Verdière, Paris. 585 pp.

Lastočkin, D.A. 1921. Issledovanija po faune Ivanovo-Voznesenskoj gubernii, organizovannye
     sel’ sko- hozjajstvennym fakul’ tetom I.-V. P. I. letom 1920 goda. 2. Fauna Oligochaeta limicola
     rajona issledovanija. Izvestija Ivanovo- Voznesenskogo Politehnieskogo Instituta 4: 70–77.

Lastočkin, D.A. 1924. Novye i redkie Copepoda i Oligochaeta v faune Ivanovo-Voznesenskoj
     gubernii. Izvestija Rossijskogo gidrologi…eskogo instituta 9: 1-22. [New and rare Copepoda
     and Oligochaeta from Central Russia (Ivanovo-Voznesensk Government).]

Lamarck, J.-B. P. A. de M., C. de. 1816. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Vol. 3.
     Verdière, Paris, France. 585 pp. 

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. 10th edition.

Ljungström, P.-O. 1970. Introduction to the study of earthworm taxonomy. Pedobiologia 10: 265-285.

Liu, Y., S.V. Fend, S. Martinsson, and C. Erséus. 2017. Extensive cryptic diversity in the
     cosmopolitan 
sludge worm Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Clitellata, Naididae). Org. Divers. Evol. 

Martin, P. 2001. On the origin of the Hirudinea and the demise of the Oligochaeta. Proceedings of the
     Royal Society, London, B, 268: 1089-1098.

Martin, P., E. Martínez-Ansemil, A. Pinder, T. Timm, and M.J. Wetzel. 2008. Global diversity of 
     oligochaetous clitellates ("Oligochaeta"; Clitellata) in freshwater. Pp. 117-127, In: E.V. Balian,
     C. 
Lévêque, H. Segers & K. Martens, eds. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment.
     Hydrobiologia 595(1): 117-127.

Martin, P., E. Martinez-Ansemil, A. Pinder, T. Timm & M.J. Wetzel. 2016 (December 15).
     World checklist of freshwater Oligochaeta species. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available
     online at: http://fada.biodiversity.be/group/show/12 [date accessed] [this is an on-line update of our
     2008 publication {cited immediately above}, with support from FADA, Freshwater Animal Diversity
     Assessment Initiative]. ^

Martin, P., E. Martínez-Ansemil, and B. Sambugar. (2010). The Baikalian genus Rhyacodriloides in 
     Europe: phylogenetic assessment of Rhyacodriloidinae subfam. n. within the Naididae (Annelida). 
     Zoologica Scripta 39(5): 462–482. [ Rhyacodriloidinae - new subfamily, p. 67 ]  ^ 

Martinsson, S.; Rota, E.; Erséus, C. 2015a. Revision of Cognettia (Clitellata, Enchytraeidae):
     re-establishment of Chamaedrilus and description of cryptic species in the sphagnetorum
     complex. Systematics and Biodiversity 13(3): 257-277. ^

Michaelsen, W. 1900. Oligochaeta. Das Tierreich - Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der
     rezenten Tierformen. Vol. 10. [The Animal Kingdom. A compilation and identification of the extant
     animal forms]. Lieferung. Friedländer, Berlin. xxix + 575 pp.

Müller, O.F. 1774. Vermium terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu Animalium Infusoriorum, Helminthicorum
     et Testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta Historia, 1773-1774. Havniae & Lipsiae. 1-214.

Nakamura, Y. 2000. Checklist of enchytraeids (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) of the world. 
     Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication No. 24:29-104.

Nielsen, C. 2012. Animal Evolution. Third Edition. Oxford, University Press. 409 pp.

Nielsen, C.O. and B. Christensen. 1959. The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of
     European species. (Studies on Enchytraeidae VII). Natura Jutlandica 8-9: 1-160.


Nielsen, C.O. and B. Christensen. 1961. The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of
     European species. Supplement 1. Natura Jutlandica 10: 1-23.


Nielsen, C.O. and B. Christensen. 1963. The Enchytraeidae. Critical revision and taxonomy of
     European species. Supplement 2. Natura Jutlandica 10: 1-19.

Nozaki, M. and Y. Nakamura. 2005. Additional list of Enchytraeidae species (Annelida: Oligochaeta)
     since 1999. Mem. Fac. Agr. Ehime Univers. 50: 11-17.

Nxele, T.C.; J.D. Plisko, T. Mwabvu, and T.O. Zishiri. 2016. A new family Kazimierzidae for
     the genus Kazimierzus, earlier recorded to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta).
   
 African Invertebrates 57(2): 111-117. ^  Kazimierzidae - new family, p. 113 ]

Omodeo, P. 1998. History of Clitellata. Italian Journal of Zoology 65: 51-73.

Omodeo, P. 2000. Evolution and biogeography of megadriles (Annelida, Clitellata). Italian Journal of
     Zoology 67(2): 179-201.

Plisko, J.D. 2013. A new family Tritogeniidae for the genera Triogenia and Michalakus, earlier
     accredited to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). African Invertebrates
     54(1): 69-92. Tritogeniidae - new family, p. 79 ]

Prantoni, A., P.C. Lana, and C. Erséus. 2017. Global checklist of species of Grania (Clitellata:
     Enchytraeidae) with remarks on their geographic distribution. European Journal of Taxonomy
     391: 1–44. ^

Reynolds, J.W. 1980. The earthworm family Sparganophilidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) in North
     America. Megadrilogica 3(12): 189-204. 

Reynolds, J.W. 2008. The earthworm family Sparganophilidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in North
     America, revisited. Megadrilogica 12(9): 125-143.

Reynolds, J.W. and D.G. Cook. 1976. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. A catalogue of names,
     descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. Univ. New Brunswick, Fredericton, New
     Brunswick. x + 217 p. [N.O.]  [Out of Print]

Reynolds, J.W. and D.G. Cook. 1981. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. Supplementum Primum. [N.O.S.P.]  A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. [Publ. by Univ. New Brunswick] Fredericton, New Brunswick. v + 39 p.  [Out of Print]

Reynolds, J.W. and D.G. Cook. 1989. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. Supplementum Secundum. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. [N.O.S.S.] New Brunswick Museum Monographic Series (Natural Science) No. 8. v + 37 p.  This second supplement may still be available from the New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, NB, Canada E2K 1E5.

Reynolds, J.W. and D.G. Cook. 1993. Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica. Supplementum Tertium. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. New Brunswick Museum Monographic Series (Natural Science) No. 9. vi + 33 p.  [N.O.S.T.]  This third supplement may still be available from the New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, NB, Canada E2K 1E5.

Righi, G. 1995. Columbian earthworms. Pp. 484-607, In: van der Hammen, T., and A.G. Dos Santos (eds.). La Cordillera Central Colombiana, Transecto Parque los Nevados Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropandinos 4. Studies in Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4(16). Stuttgart, Berlin: J. Cramer.
[ Tumakidae – new family, p. 600 ].

Righi, G. and M.E. Varela. 1983. Narapa bonettoi, gen. nov. sp. nov. (Oligochaeta, Narapidae, fam. nov.) de agua doce da Argentina. Revista de la Asociaction de Ciencias Naturales Del Litoral 14: 7-15. [ Narapidae – new family, p. 8 ].

Rodriguez, P., and S. V. Fend. 2018. On spermatophore-producing aquatic microdrile oligochaetes 
     (Annelida: Clitellata). Zootaxa 4497 (1): 041-060. [lectotype for Paranadrilus descolei Gavrilov, 1955
     established]. ZooBank. ^

Rota, E. and B. Healy. 1994. The enchytraeid fauna of North Africa.Hydrobiologia 278: 53-66

Rota, E. and Yde de Jong. 2015. Fauna Europaea: Annelida - Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Enchytraeidae and Megadrili), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta. Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e5737 (11 Sep 2015). 

Rota, E., S. Martinsson, M. Bartoli, A. Beylich, U. Graefe, A. Laini, M.J. Wetzel, and C. Erséus. 2016. Mitochondrial evidence supports a Nearctic origin for the spreading limicolous earthworm 
Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892 (Clitellata, Sparganophilidae). Contributions to Zoology 85(1): 113-119. 

Savigny, J.C. 1826. Memoire sur les Lombrics par Cuvier. Mém. Acad. Fr. 5: 176-184.

Schmelz, R.M. 2003. Taxonomy of Fridericia (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae): Revision of species with morphological and biochemical methods. Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg (Neue Folge) (Ed. Otto Kraus), No. 38. 415 pp. + 73 full-page figures. ISBN: 3931374408. Cost: 125. Euros. [To order a copy of this book, please contact: Goecke & Evers, Sportplatzweg 5, 75210 Keltern-Weiler, Germany. Fax: 07236-7325; E-Mail: books@insecta.de].

Schmelz R.M. and R. Collado. 2009. New enchytraeid species since 2007. Soil Organisms 81: 265. ^

Schmelz, R.M. and R. Collado. 2012. An updated checklist of currently accepted species of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta). Pp. 67-87, In: Schrader, S. and R. Schmelz (Eds.). Newsletter on Enchytraeidae No. 12. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Enchytraeidae, 14-16 July, 2010, Braunschweig, Germany. Landbauforschung - vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research. Sonderheft 357, Special Issue [special issue] 357. ISSN 0376-0723, ISBN 978-3-86576-083-8. ^

Schmelz, R.M. and R. Collado. 2015. Checklist of taxa of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta): an update.
     Soil Organisms 87(2): 149-152. ^

Sims, R.W. 1973. Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (Annelida, Oligochaeta): designation of a
     neotype in accordance with accustomed usage. Problems arising from the misidentification of the
     species by Savigny (1922 & 1826). Z.N.(S.)272. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 31(1): 27-33. ^

Sims, R.W. and E.G. Easton. 1972. A numerical revision of the earthworm genus Pheretima auct.
     (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) with the recognition of new genera and an appendix on the
     earthworms collected by the Royal Society North Borneo Expedition. Biological Journal of the
     Linnaean Society, London 4: 169-268.

Sjölin, E., C. Erséus and M. Källersjö. 2005. Phylogeny of Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata) based on
     mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 431-441.

Sperber, C. 1948. A taxonomic guide to the Naididae. Zoologiska Bidrag från Uppsala 28: 1-296 + 21 plates.

Stephenson, J. 1930. The Oligochaeta. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. iv + 978 pp. [reprinted in 1972, in Historiae Naturalis Classica, Vol. XCII, by J. Cramer et H.K. Swann, Wheldon & Wesley, Ltd. - Stechert-Hafner Service Agency, Inc., New York, NY, USA]

Timm, T. 2006. Comment on the proposed precedence of Tubificidae Vejdovský, 1876 over Naididae Ehrenberg, 1828 (Annelida, Clitellata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 63: 48.

Timm, T. 2009. A guide to the freshwater Oligochaeta and Polychaeta of Northern and Central Europe.  Lauterbornia 66: 1-235.

Timm, T. 2012. Life forms in Oligochaeta: a literature review. Pp. 71-82, In: Pavlíček, T; Cardet, P.; Csuzdi, C.; Le Bayon, R.-C.; Gobat, J.-M. (eds.). 2012. Advances in Earthworm Taxonomy V (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the 5th International Oligochaeta Taxonomy Meeting Beatenberg, Switzerland, 11-15 April, 2011. Zoology in the Middle East 58 (Supplement 4). Taylor and Francis, Ltd., England. ISSN: 0939-7140 (print), 2326-2680 (online).

Timm, T. 2017. Aquatic microdrile Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata): New nominal taxa and
     combinations since 1984. Zootaxa 4282(3): 401-452. ZooBank. ^

Timm, T., and P.J. Martin. 2015.  Clitellata: Oligochaeta.  Chapter 21. Pp. 529–549, In J. Thorp and D.C. Rogers (eds). Ecology and General Biology. Volume 1. Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates. Elsevier, Academic Press. ISBN: 9780123850263. ^

Van Harren, T., and J. Soors. 2013. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the Netherlands and Belgium.
     Published by KNNV Publishing, Zeist, The Netherlands [www.knnvpublishing.nl].
     ISBN 978 90 5011 3786.302 pp. + 358 figs. 

Vejdovský, F. 1884. System und Morphologie der Oligochaeten. Franz Rivnac, Prague. 1-172.

WoRMS Editorial Board (2019). World Register of Marine Species. Accessed 2019-III-11; 
         Click here to access Annelida listings.


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