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The Potworms (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of North America – A Bibliography   

by

Jiří Schlaghamerský 1  and  Mark J. Wetzel 2
[ page update: 2019-III-09 ]


1 Faculty of Science, Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
2
Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, Champaign, Illinois USA


The information presented in the papers cited in this bibliography were the basis for a paper presented by Jiří Schlaghamerský at the 6th International Oligochaete Taxonomy Meeting (6th IOTM), convened at the Quinta da Seara in Palmeira de Faro, Esposende, Portugal, 22- 25 April, 2013.  A citation for the  proceedings of this meeting (published in 2014) is as follows:

Tomáš Pavlíček, Patricia Cardet, Maria Teresa Almeida, Cláudia Pascoal, and Fernanda Cássio (Eds.). 2014.  Advances in Earthworm Taxonomy VI (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the 6th International Oligochaete Taxonomy Meeting (6th IOTM), Palmeira de Faro, Portugal, 22-25 April, 2013. Publisher: Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg. ISBN 9783-925064-69-2. 188 pp. [this publication is available for purchase (28 Euros), and can be ordered via the publisher's email address: Kasparek@t-online.de]

A citation for the paper by Jiří Schlaghamerský (2014), published in the above proceedings, has been included in the bibliography, below. Please contact Dr. Schlaghamerský via e-mail { jiris'[AT]'sci.muni.cz } if you would like a reprint of this paper.  


Note: this website will be updated periodically to include citations for historical and recent publications on enchytraeids pertinent to our more extensive project focusing on the Enchytraeidae of North America, and with contributions from other colleagues specializing on taxa within the order Enchytraeida. Please send a pdf of your pertinent paper to each of us for inclusion in our bibliographic databases, and on this webpage. 


Bell, A. W. (1936): Three new species of Fridericia (Enchytraeidae) from California. – University of California Publications in Zoology 41 (12): 145–164.

Bell, A. W. (1942): Some new enchytraeid worms (Oligochaeta) from North America. – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 61 (4): 404–429.

Bell, A. W. (1945): A new species of Mesenchytraeus (Oligochaeta) from Oregon.  – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 64 (1): 29–33.

Bell, A. W. (1949): Mesenchytraeus diplobulbosus, a new enchytraeid worm (Oligochaeta) from Southern California with notes on the so-called "cement gland". – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 68 (3): 240–244.

Bell, A. W. (1959): Enchytraeus fragmentosus, a new species of naturally fragmenting oligochaete worm. – Science 129 (3358): 1278.

Bell, A. W. (1962): Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta) from various parts of the world. – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 81 (2): 158–178.

Brinkhurst, R. O. & Jamieson, B. G. M. (1971): Aquatic Oligochaeta of the World. – Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.

Černosvitov, L. (1933): Revision der Enchytraeiden-Gattung Distichopus Leidy. – Zoologischer Anzeiger 104: 73–76.

Coates, K. A. (1980): New marine species of Marionina and Enchytraeus (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from British Columbia. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 58 (7): 1306–1317.

Coates, K. A. (1981): New species of Lumbricillus (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from littoral habitats of British Columbia. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 59 (7): 1302–1311.

Coates, K. A. (1983a): New records of marine Marionina (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from the Pacific Northeast, with a description of Marionina klaskisharum sp. nov. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 61 (4): 822–831.

Coates, K. A. (1983b): Taxonomy of the Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta). Review of Stephensoniella, with new species records.  – Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 96: 411–419.

Coates, K. A. (1984): Specific criteria in Grania (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae). –  Hydrobiologia 115: 45–50.

Coates, K. A. (1995): Widespread polyploid forms of Lumbricillus lineatus (Müller) (Enchytraeidae: Oligochaeta): comments on polyploidism in the enchytraeids. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 73 (9): 1727–1734.

Coates, K. A. & Diaz, R. J. (1988): Description of Guaranidrilus oregonensis (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from North America, with additional comments on the genus.  – Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 101 (4): 773–783.

Coates, K. A. & Ellis, D. V. (1980): Enchytraeid oligochaetes as marine pollution indicators. Marine Pollution Bulletin 11 (6): 171–174.

Coates, K. A. & Ellis, D. V. (1981): Taxonomy and distribution of marine Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in British Columbia. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 59(11): 2129–2150.

Coates, K. A. & Erséus, C. (1980): Two species of Grania (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from the Pacific Coast of North America. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 58: 1037–1041.

Coates, K. A. & Erséus, C. (1985): Marine Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta) of the Coastal Northwest Atlantic (Northern and Mid U.S.A.). – Zoologica Scripta 14: 103–116.

Coates, K. A., J. M. Locke, B. M. Healy & M. J. Wetzel (2008): The Enchytraeidae and Propappidae (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeida) occurring in the United States and Canada. – World Wide Web URL: https://www.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/enchytraeidae. Accessed on January 11, 2015.  Note that this webpage is in process of being updated.

Christensen, B. & Dózsa-Farkas, K. (2006): Invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into two postglacial tundras: North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta). – Polar Biology 29: 454–466.

Dash, M. C. (1970): A taxonomic study of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) from Rocky Mountain forest soils of the Kananaskis region of Alberta, Canada. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 48: 1429–1435.

Dash, M. C. (1972): New Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) from the Penny Forest soil of British Columbia, Canada. – Annales Zoologici Fennici 9: 15–16.

Dash, M. C. & Cragg, J. B.  (1972a): Selection of microfungi by Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) and other members of the soil fauna. – Pedobiologia 12: 282–286.

Dash, M. C. & Cragg, J. B.  (1972b): Ecology of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in Canadian Rocky Mountain Soils. – Pedobiologia 12: 323–335.

Dial, C. R., Dial, R. J.,  Saunders, R., Lang, S. A.,  Lee, B., Wimberger, P. , Dinapoli, M.S., Egiazarov, A.S., Gipple, S. L., Maghirang, M. R., Swartley-McArdle, D. J., Yudkovitz, S. R. & Shain, D. H. (2012): Historical biogeography of the North American glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae). – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63 (3): 577–584.

Dial, R.J.; Becker, M.; Hope, A.G.; Dial, C.R.; Thomas, J.; Slobodenko, K.A.; Golden, T.S.; Shain, D.H. 2016. The role of temperature in the distribution of the glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae). Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 4(1): 199-211; DOI: 10.1657/AAAR0015-042.

Eisen, G. (1904): Enchytraeids. Harriman Alaska Expedition. Alaska XII. New York: Doubleday, Page and Co.

Emery, C. (1898a):  Diagnosi di un nuovi genere e nuova specie di annelidi della famiglia degli Enchytraeidae.  Atti della Reale Accademia Lincei 5 (7): 100–111.

Emery, C. (1898b):  Über einen schwarzen Oligochäten von den Alaska Gletschern.  Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft bei ihrer Versammlung zu Bern den 1., 2. und 3. August, D. Sektion für Zoologie: 89.

Emery, C. (1898c):  Sur un oligochete noir des glacier de l’Alaska.  Bulletin de la Societé Zoologique Suisse, (Revue suisse de zoologie V, Suppl.): 21–22.

Emery, C. (1900).  On Melanenchytraeus Solifugus,an oligochaetous annelid of the family of the Enchytraeidae. – Westminister: Archibald Constable and Co.

Erséus, C. (2005): Phylogeny of oligochaetous Clitellata. – Hydrobiologia 535/536: 357-372.

Erséus, C. & Lasserre, P. (1976): Taxonomic Status and Geographic Variation of the Marine Enchytraeid Genus Grania Southern (Oligochaeta). – Zoologica Scripta 5: 121–132.

Farrell, A. H., Hohenstein, K. A. & Shain, D. H. (2004): Molecular adaptation in the ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus: Divergence of energetic-associated genes. – Journal of Molecular Evolution 59 (5): 666–673.

Gudger, E. W. (1923): Snow-worms: enchytraeid worms found in the snow and on the glaciers of high mountains. – Natural History 23 (5): 450–456.

Hartzell, P. L., Nghiem, J.V., Richio, K. J.  & Shain, D. H. (2005): Distribution and phylogeny of glacier ice worms (Mesenchytraeus solifugus and Mesenchytraeus solifugus rainierensis). – Canadian Journal of Zoology 83 (9): 1206–1213.

Hohenstein, K. A. & Shain, D. H. (2006): Divergence of the F1-ATP synthase complex in the ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae). – Hydrobiologia 564: 51–58.

Healy, B. (1989): Preliminary report on the Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) of West Florida. – Hydrobiologia 180: 41–56.

Healy, B. (1996): Records of Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) from West Florida.1. Mesenchytraeus, Cognettia, Bryodrilus, Hemienchytraeus, Henlea and Buchholzia. – Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109: 118–137.

Healy, B. & Coates, K. A. (1999): Finding enchytraeid oligochaetes in hot climates: species occurrence on the shores of Bermuda. – Hydrobiologia 406: 111–117.

Healy, B. & Coates, K. A. (2003): A preliminary investigation of the decomposition of Sargassum stranded on Bermuda beaches, and the particular role of Enchytraeidae in its decomposition. – In: Didden, W. & van Vliet, P. (eds.): Newsletter on Enchytraeidae No. 8, Proceedings  of the 5th International Symposium on Enchytraeidae, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 12–14 April, 2002: 13–24.

Healy, B. & Fend, S. V. (2002): The occurrence of Mesenchytraeus (Enchytraeidae : Oligochaeta) in riffle habitats of north-west American rivers, with description of a new species. – Journal of Natural History 36: 15–23.

Healy, B. & Walters, K. (1994): Oligochaeta in Spartina stems: the microdistribution of Enchytraeidae and Tubificidae in a salt marsh, Sapelo Island, USA. – Hydrobiologia 278: 111–123.

Laganière, J., Paré, D., Bradley, R. L. (2009): Linking the abundance of aspen with soil faunal communities and rates of belowground processes within single stands of mixed aspen-black spruce. – Applied Soil Ecology 41 (1): 19–28.

Lasserre, P. (1971): The marine Enchytraeidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) of the eastern coast of North America with notes on their geographical distribution and habitat. – Biological Bulletin 140 (3): 440–460.

Lasserre, P. & Erséus, C. (1976): Oligochètes marins des Bermudes. Nouvelles espèces et remarques sur la distribution géographique de quelques Tubificidae et Enchytraeidae. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 17: 447–462.

Leidy, J. (1850): Descriptions of some American Annelida Abranchia. – Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, series 2, 2: 43–50.

Leidy, J. (1882): On Enchytraeus, Distichopus and their parasites. – Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 34 (2): 145–148.

Locke, J. M. & Coates, K. A. (1999): Redescription of Grania americana, G. bermudensis and descriptions of two new species of Grania (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) from Bermuda. – Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 112: 598–623.

Locke, J. M. & Coates, K. A. (2000): An illustrated key to the species of Grania and Randidrilus (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of eastern North America, Bermuda, and the Caribbean area. – Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 113: 617–632.

Moore, J. P. (1895a): The characters of the Enchytraeid genus Distichopus. – American Naturalist 29: 754–756.

Moore, J. P. (1895b): Notes on American Enchytraeidae 1. New species of Fridericia from the vicinity of Philadelphia. – Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: 341–345.

Moore, J. P. (1899): Snow-inhabiting enchytraeid (Mesenchytraeus solifugus Emery) collected by Mr. Henry G. Bryant on the Malaspina Glacier, Alaska. – Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 51 (1): 125–144.

Napolitano, M. J.  & Shain, D. H. (2004): Four kingdoms on glacier ice: convergent energetic processes boost energy levels as temperatures fall. – Proceedings of the Royal Society B 271 (Suppl.): 273–276.

Napolitano M. J., Nagele, R. G. & Shain, D. H. (2004): The ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, elevates adenylate levels at low physiological temperature. – Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 137 (1): 227–235.

Negrete-Yankelevich, S., Fragoso, C., Newton, A. C. & Heal, O. W. (2007): Successional changes in soil, litter and macroinvertebrate parameters following selective logging in a Mexican Cloud Forest. – Applied Soil Ecology 35 (2): 340–355.

Nielsen, C. O. & Christensen, B. (1959): The Enchytraeidae, critical revision and taxonomy of European species. – Natura Jutlandica 8–9:1–160.

Nurminen, M. (1973a): Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) from the Arctic Archipelago of Canada. – Annales Zoologici Fennici 10: 403–4011.

Nurminen, M. (1973b): Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) from the vicinity of Montreal, Canada. – Annales Zoologici Fennici 10: 399–402.

Odell, N. E. (1949): Ice-worms in Yukon and Alaska. Nature 164 (4128): 1098.

Rota, E. & Brinkhurst, R. O. (2000): Mesenchytraeus antaeus, a new giant enchytraeid (Annelida, Clitellata) from the temperate rainforest of British Columbia, Canada, with a revised diagnosis of the genus Mesenchytraeus. – Journal of Zoology (London) 252: 27–40.

Rota, E. (2001): Oversized enchytraeids (Annelida, Clitellata): a comparative study, with a revised description of Lumbricillus maximus (Michaelsen). – Organisms Diversity & Evolution 1: 225–238.

Russell, I.C. (1892): Second expedition to Mt. St. Elias in 1891. – Thirteenth Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey 1891–1892, Pt. II, Geology: 33.

Schlaghamerský, J., and L. E. Frelich (2012): First records of Parergodrilus heideri (Annelida:Polychaeta) from North America. Zootaxa 3498, 81–86.

Schlaghamerský, J. (2013a): Enchytraeid assemblages (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of two old growth forests in the Porcupine Mountains (Michigan, USA). – Soil Organisms 85 (2): 85–96.

Schlaghamerský, J. (2013b): The enchytraeid assemblage (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of a Sandhill prairie site in Nebraska, USA. – Soil Organisms 85 (2): 97–102.

Schlaghamerský, J. (2014): A brief history of research on potworms (Annelida: Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) of North America. Pp. 177–188, In: Pavlíček, T., P. Cardet, M.T. Almeida, C. Pascoal, and F. Cássio (Eds.). 2014.  Advances in Earthworm Taxonomy VI (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the 6th International Oligochaete Taxonomy Meeting (6th IOTM), Palmeira de Faro, Portugal, 22- 25 April, 2013. Publisher: Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg. ISBN 9783-925064-69-2.  Please contact Dr. Schlaghamerský via e-mail { jiris'[AT]'sci.muni.cz } if you would like a reprint of this paper.  

Schlaghamerský, J., Eisenhauer, N. & Frelich, L. E. (2014): Earthworm invasion alters enchytraeid community composition and individual biomass in Northern Hardwood Forests of North America. – Applied Soil Ecology 83: 159–169.

Schmelz, R. M. (2003): Taxonomy of Fridericia (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae). Revision of species with morphological and biochemical methods. – Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg (Neue Folge) 38: 1–488.

Schmelz, R. M. & R. Collado (2003): A guide to European terrestrial and freshwater species of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta). – Soil Organisms 82: 1–176.

Schmelz, R. M. & R. Collado (2012): Guide to European Terrestrial and Freshwater Species of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta): First supplement. – Landbauforschung – vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research, Special Issue 357: 53–66.

Shain, D. H., Carter, M. R., Murray, K. P., Maleski, K. A., Smith, N. R., McBride, T. R., Michalewicz, L. A. & Saidel, W. M. (2000): – Morphologic characterization of the ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus. Journal of Morphology 246 (3): 192–197.

Shain, D. H., Mason, T. A., Farrell, A. H. & Michalewicz, L. A. (2001): Distribution and behavior of ice worms (Mesenchytraeus solifugus) in south-central Alaska. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 1813–1821.

Smith, F. (1895): Notes on species of North American Oligochaeta. – Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 4: 285–297.

Smith, F. & Welch, P. S. (1913): Some new Illinois Enchytraeidae. – Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 9: 615–636.

Tartaglia, L. J. & Shain, D. H. (2008): Cold-adapted tubulins in the glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus. – Gene 423 (2): 135–141.

Timm, T. 1996. Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) as lake-dwellers.  Pp. 47-55, In: K. Dózsa-Farkas (ed.).  Proceedings of the Symposium on Enchytraeidae, Budapest, Hungary, 24-25 June 1996. Newsletter on Enchytraeidae  No. 5. 

Tynen, M. J. (1969): New Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) from the east coast of Vancouver Island. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 47: 387–393.

Tynen, M. J. (1970a): The geographical distribution of ice-worms (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) – Canadian Journal of Zoology 48: 1363–1367.

Tynen, M. J. (1970b): Marionina charae, a new species of enchytraeid (Oligochaeta) from the Canadian Arctic. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 48: 1359–1361.

Tynen, M. J. (1972): Ice-worms (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) from western British Columbia. – National Museum of Natural Sciences [Ottawa]. Publications in Zoology 6.

Tynen, M. J. (1975): A checklist and bibliography of the North American Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Syllogeus 9: 1–14.

Tynen, M. J., Coates, K. A., Smith C. A. S. & Tomlin A. D. (1991): Henlea yukonensis (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae), a new species from the Yukon Territory, with comments on Henlea Michaelsen, 1889 and Punahenlea, 1980. – Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 1375–1388.

van Vliet, P. C. J., Beare, M. H.  & Coleman, D. C.  (1995): Population dynamics and functional roles of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in hardwood forest and agricultural ecosystems. – Plant and Soil 170: 199–207.

van Vliet, P. C. J., Coleman, D. C. & Hendrix, P. F. (1997): Population dynamics of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in different agricultural systems. – Biology and Fertility of Soils 25: 123–129.

van Vliet, P. C. J., Radcliffe, D. E., Hendrix, P. F. & Coleman, D. C.  (1998): Hydraulic conductivity and pore-size distribution in small microcosms with and without enchytraeids (Oligochaeta). – Applied Soil Ecology 9: 277–282.

Waldrop, M. P., Harden, J. W., Turetsky, M. R., Petersen, D. G., McGuire, A. D., Briones, M. J. I., Churchill, A. C., Doctor, D. H. & Pruett, L. E. (2012): Bacterial and enchytraeid abundance accelerate soil carbon turnover along a lowland vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. – Soil Biology and Biochemistry 50: 188–198.

Welch, P. S. (1914a): Studies on the Enchytraeidae of North America. – Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 10: 123–212.

Welch, P. S. (1914b): A new Henlea (Enchytraeidae) from northern Michigan. – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 33 (3): 155–164.

Welch, P. S. (1916a): Snowfield and glacier Clitellata from Mt. Rainier, Washington. – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 35 (2): 85–124.

Welch, P. S. (1916b): Glacier Clitellata from Mt. Rainier. – Science 43: 143.

Welch, P. S. (1917a): Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) from the Rocky Mountain Region. – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 36 (2): 67–81.

Welch, P. S. (1917b): The Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) of the Woods Hole Region, Mass. – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 36 (3): 119–138.

Welch, P. S. (1917c): Alaskan glacier worms (Clitellata). – Bionomical Leaflets No. 2, Montreal: McGill University.

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Welch, P. S. (1919b): The Enchytraeidae. In: Smith, F. & Welch, P. S. – Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, Volume IX, Annelids, Parasitic Worms, Protozoans, Etc., Part A: Oligochaeta, Ottawa: J. de Labroquerie Taché, pp. 9–19.

Welch, P.S. 1920. The genera of the Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta). – Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 39: 25–50.

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Wetzel, M. J., Kathman, R. D., Fend, S.V. & Coates, K. A. (2019): Classification and checklist of the freshwater oligochaetes occurring in North America north of Mexico. – World Wide Web URL: https://www.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/fwoligonachecklist/. Accessed on 9 March 2019.

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