--------------------  FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs) and ANSWERS  --------------------
[ page update: 2017-I-1 ]


Q: How often is this NO2 website updated with new information, or corrections?

A: We try to add accounts for newly described taxa as soon as we receive notification of their published description.  We update information for accounts already included on this website as quickly as we can, which includes adding to previously incomplete accounts, and correcting errors that had inadvertently been posted.  Update datestamps are included near the top of most of the pages associated with this website, as
         "[ page updated: yyyy-mm {using Roman numerals}-dd ]."


Q: How can I contribute information for this website, e.g., newly described taxa, additions to existing accounts, and/or corrections to information on the pages associated with this website?

A: Please visit the page 'For Contributors' (which is also linked from the brown navigator bar on the left side of each page associated with this website).


Q:  How was this website designed?

A:  This website was designed using Concrete5 [URL: http://www.concrete5.org/] CMS v.5.5.2.1, an open source content management software for designing, publishing, and maintaining content on the World Wide Web as well as for intranet systems.  The system version was upgraded to CMS 5.6.2.1 in early November 2013, with Optimized MySQL upgraded to MySQL/Percona 5.5.


Q: How do I empty cached websites in my browser?

A: Clearing your browser cache will result in faster access (load) times for pages you wish to visit.  We present several sources accessible via the World Wide Web that provide information on clearing browser cache, below [you must copy the URL of the sites, below, then paste them into your own browser]. 

Common computer operating systems (OS) include MS Windows, Apple OS9, OSX, Linux, Android, iOS, BSD, Windows Phone, QNX, and IBM x/OS; common browsers include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (v. 7–11), mobile Safari for i-devices, Opera, Torch, Maxthon, Sea Monkey, Avant Browser, Deepnet Explorer.  Each operating system, each version of those operating systems, and each browser (and browser version) being used on those operating systems will require simple, yet slightly different steps to clear the cache from any browser being used.  

If you have any questions, please consult your IT (internet technology) professionals at your institution.*
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1.  Source: Indiana University, Indiana, USA.  
URL: http://kb.iu.edu/data/ahic.html
> information for the following browsers: Chrome, Android, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (V. 7, 8, 9), mobile Safari for i-devices, Opera

2.  Source:  Long Beach City College, Long Beach, California, USA
URL: http://itdc.lbcc.edu/cps/engines/clearcache/
> information pertinent to clearing the cache in Safari.  

3.  Source:  WikiHow
URL: http://www.wikihow.com/Clear-the-Cache-in-a-Mac-OS-X

4.  Source: University of Wisconsin-Madison (USA).
URL: http://kb.wisc.edu/page.php?id=12314
> clearing cache when using Internet Explorer 8 (Win).

5.  Source:  PCWorld
URL: http://www.pcworld.com/article/246049/how_to_delete_your_browser_history.html

6.  Source:  Computer Hope (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA)
URL: http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000510.htm
> clearing IE browser history

7.  Source:  Ask.com
URL: http://www.ask.com/question/how-do-i-delete-all-history-off-my-computer
> deleting all all history (browser history, and more)
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* The sources for assistance in clearing your browser history, listed above, are suggestions only; this listing does not constitute endorsement. If you have any questions, please consult the IT (internet technology) professionals at your institution.  We always recommend that you perform a complete back-up of your computer before proceeding with any software updates, maintenance, or other technical procedures. 


Q:  Why have all of the '@' symbols in email addresses included on pages of this website been changed to '[AT]'?

A:  '[AT]' has been substituted for the ''@'' symbol in email addresses associated with curators, collections managers, institutional contacts, and us – to divert (as best possible) the harvesting of email addresses by spammers, commercial entities, and others of their ilk.

 


Q:  A caret – '^' – (also known as a circumflex or hat) follows many of the accounts for genera, subgenera, and species.  What does this indicate?

A:  We have added this caret symbol to indicate that we have verified the information in the account by viewing the actual publication (paper, book); we have been adding this caret for newly entered accounts, and also for historical accounts as time permits.  Of course, there is the possibility that we may have created typographical errors or inadvertently allowed errors to persist; please contact us with any errors that you see.  Thanks!


Q: What about on-line first, DOI, and PLOS publications?  Specifically, how has the ICZN been modified to recognize and include the virtual world of publishing specific to nomenclature?

A:  The electronic edition of most articles published in the virtual world that include descriptions and revisions for taxa for which accounts are included in this nomenclator conform to the requirements of the amended International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and hence the new names contained in accounts herein are available under that Code from the electronic edition of these articles. Most published works and the nomenclatural acts contained therein have been registered in ZooBank, the online registration system for the ICZN. The ZooBank LSIDs (Life Science Identifiers) can be resolved and the associated information viewed through any standard web browser by appending the LSID to the prefix “http://zoobank.org/”. LSID's are accessible via the 'ZooBank' links at the end of many taxon accounts.  The electronic edition of most of the on-line articles are published in a journal with an ISSN, and have been archived and  available from PubMed Central and other digital repositories. 


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