Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois



This web site initially established and currently maintained by

Mark J. Wetzel, Research Scientist and Oligochaetologist
- Curator, Collections Manager, and Database Manager, INHS Annelida Collection
Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS)Prairie Research Institute at the 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois USA




Introduction. Wetzel (1992) published the first comprehensive review of aquatic Annelida in Illinois, including 130 species representing 71 genera in 15 families. The list below has been modified to: a) include species identified from the state since publication of that review; b) reflect recent nomenclatural and systematic changes; and c) correct several actual date-of-publication errors that had been perpetuated in past literature. Recent works discussing the phylogeny of aquatic Annelida have been included in the section on classification. References to publications noted in the text of this document are included in the 'Literature Cited and Selected References' section, which follows the checklist of species.


Phylogeny and Classification of Aquatic Annelida. The first global compendium on aquatic oligochaetes was published by Brinkhurst and Jamieson (1971). The section in that book discussing the phylogeny and classification of aquatic oligochaetes set the stage for numerous investigations into the phylogenetic relationships of all annelids. Most noteable are: Jamieson (1978, 1980, 1988), Timm (1981), Brinkhurst (1982, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1992, 1994, 1999), Kasprzak (1982, 1984), Kathman and Brinkhurst (1998), Parker (1982), Holt (1986, 1989), Erséus (1987, 1990), Sawyer (1986a, 1986b, 1986c), Brinkhurst and Nemec (1987), Coates (1987, 1989), Nemec and Brinkhurst (1987), Brinkhurst and Gelder (1989), Gelder and Brinkhurst (1990), Purschke et al. (1993), Sima (1993), Sidall and Burreson (1995, 1996, 1998), Bartolomaeus (1997), Trapido-Rosenthal (1997), Omodeo (1998, 2000), Sidall et al. (1998), McHugh (1999, 2000), Purschke (1999), Westheide et al. (1999), Martin et al. (2000) [plus more recent publications to be added here soon]. This paper follows the division of the phylum Annelida into two classes: the Polychaeta and the Clitellata (including the Acanthobdellae, Branchiobdellae, Oligochaeta, and Hirudinida). Nomenclature follows Reynolds and Cook (1976, 1981, 1989, 1993) and Reynolds and Wetzel (2010, in prep.) for the Oligochaeta; Klemm (1985) for Acanthobdellida and Polychaeta; Klemm (1985), Sawyer (1986a,1986b, 1986c), Barta and Sawyer (1990), and Jones and Woo (1990) for Hirudinida; and Holt (1986), Holt and Opell (1993), Gelder (1996), Gelder et al. (2002), and Govedich et al. (2010) for Branchiobdellida.


You are encouraged to visit the following websites:
Classification and Checklist of the freshwater Oligochaeta occurring in North America north of Mexico,
Classification and checklist of the leeches occurring in North America north of Mexico.

Checklist of aquatic Annelida occurring in Illinois. Species preceded by a single asterisk (*) were reported by Wetzel (1992) as new records for the state of Illinois. Species preceded by two asterisks (**) indicate new records for the state (published and unpublished) since 1992. Illinois species collected only from inshore Lake Michigan habitats are preceded by a 'plus' sign (+).



P H Y L U M - A N N E L I D A

 Order Aeolosomatida


 Genus Aeolosoma Ehrenberg, 1828

Aeolosoma hemprichi Ehrenberg, 1828

Aeolosoma tenebrarum Vejdovský, 1880

Aeolosoma variegatum Vejdovský, 1884




 Order Branchiobdellida


 Genus Bdellodrilus Moore, 1895

Bdellodrilus illuminatus (Moore, 1894)


 Genus Cambarincola Ellis, 1912

Cambarincola chirocephalus Ellis, 1919

**Cambarincola illinoisensis Holt, 1982

Cambarincola macrodontus Ellis, 1912

Cambarincola philadelphicus (Leidy, 1851)

Cambarincola vitreus Ellis, 1919

Genus Oedipodrilus Holt, 1967

Oedipodrilus macbaini (Holt, 1955)

Genus Pterodrilus Moore, 1895

Pterodrilus distichus Moore, 1895

Genus Sathodrilus Holt, 1968

Sathodrilus elevatus (Goodnight, 1940)


 Genus Xironodrilus Ellis, 1919

Note: This genus was listed under the family Branchiobdellidae in Wetzel (1992); 
it subsequently has been placed in its own family (refer to Gelder [1996]).

Xironodrilus formosus Ellis, 1919



Order Lumbriculida


Genus Eclipidrilus Eisen, 1881

Eclipidrilus asymmetricus (Smith, 1896)

Genus Lumbriculus Grube, 1844

Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774)

Genus Stylodrilus Claparède, 1862

+Stylodrilus heringianus Claparède 1862

Genus Trichodrilus Claparède, 1862

Trichodrilus allobrogum Claparède, 1862



Order Haplotaxida


Genus Haplotaxis Hoffmeister, 1843

Haplotaxis ? gordioides (Hartmann, 1821)
(?= Haplotaxis emissarius [Forbes, 1890]; ?= Haplotaxis forbesi Smith, 1918)



Order Enchytraeida


Genus Barbidrilus Loden & Locy, 1980

Barbidrilus paucisetus Loden & Locy, 1980

Genus Lumbricillus Ørsted, 1844

Lumbricillus rivalis (Levinsen, 1883)

augmented Ditlevsen, 1904

Genus Marionina Pfeffer, 1890

Marionina forbesae Smith & Welch, 1913 ?incertae sedis

Genus Henlea Michaelsen, 1899

Henlea urbanensis Welch, 1914



Order Tubificida

Subfamily Naidinae Ehrenberg, 1828

Genus Allonais Sperber, 1948

**Allonais inaequalis (Stephenson, 1911) [initially misidentified as A. paraguayensis]; see Kathman and Wetzel (2003).

Allonais pectinata (Stephenson, 1910)

Genus Amphichaeta Tauber, 1879

*Amphichaeta leydigi Tauber, 1879

Genus Bratislavia Košel, 1976

Bratislavia unidentata (Harman, 1973)

Genus Chaetogaster von Baer, 1827

Chaetogaster diaphanus (Gruithuisen, 1828)

Chaetogaster diastrophus (Gruithuisen, 1828)

Chaetogaster limnaei von Baer, 1827

Genus Dero Oken, 1915

Dero (Aulophorusfurcata (Müller, 1773)

Dero (Aulophorusvaga (Leidy, 1880)

Dero (Derodigitata (Müller, 1773)

**Dero (Derolodeni Brinkhurst 1986
- - Note: [= Dero (Aulophorusintermedius Loden and Harman, 1982, Freshwat. Invert. Biol. 1(1): 53; nom. nov pro: Aulophorus pectinatusStephenson, 1931 nec Dero pectinatus Aiyer, 1929, vide Reynolds and Cook, 1976 - p. 153; et nec Dero intermedia Cragin, 1887, vide Reynolds and Cook, 1976 - p. 118; thus an unavailable name according to Harman in litt. 23 Sep. 1983]; the nomenclatural status of this species, as Dero lodeni, was resolved by Brinkhurst (1986, p. 253).

Dero (Deronivea Aiyer, 1930

Dero (Deroobtusa d'Udekem, 1835

*Dero (Deropectinata Aiyer, 1930

*Dero (Derotrifida Loden, 1979

Genus Haemonais Bretscher, 1900

*Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900

Genus Nais Müller, 1773

Nais barbata Müller, 1773

Nais behningi Michaelsen, 1923

Nais communis Piguet, 1906

Nais elinguis Müller, 1773

Nais pardalis Piguet, 1906

Nais pseudobtusa Piguet, 1906

Nais simplex Piguet, 1906

Nais variabilis Piguet, 1906

Genus Ophidonais Gervais, 1838

Ophidonais serpentina (Müller, 1773)

Genus Paranais Czerniavsky, 1880

Paranais frici Hrab?, 1941

Genus Piguetiella Sperber, 1939

+Piguetiella michiganensis Hiltunen, 1967

Genus Slavina Vejdovský, 1883

Slavina appendiculata (d'Udekem, 1855)

Genus Specaria Sperber, 1939

Specaria josinae (Vejdovský, 1883)

Genus Stephensoniana ?ernosvitov, 1938

Stephensoniana trivandrana (Aiyer, 1926)

Genus Stylaria Lamarck, 1816

Stylaria lacustris (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Stylaria fossularis Leidy, 1852)

Genus Uncinais Levinson, 1884

+Uncinais uncinata (Ørsted, 1842)

Genus Vejdovskyella Michaelsen, 1903

Vejdovskyella intermedia (Bretscher, 1896)


Subfamily Pristininae Lasto?kin, 1921

Genus Pristina Ehrenberg, 1828

Pristina acuminata Liang, 1958

*Pristina aequiseta Bourne, 1891
(= Pristina evelinae Marcus, 1943, = Pristina foreli Piguet, 1906)

Pristina breviseta Bourne, 1891

*Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson, 1931)
(= Pristina idrensis Sperber, 1948)

Pristina leidyi Smith, 1896

**Pristina longidentata Harman, 1965

Pristina osborni (Walton, 1906)

Pristina plumaseta Turner, 1935

*Pristina sima (Marcus, 1944)

Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925

>>> Please Note: The genus Pristinella, established by Brinkhurst (1985), was suppressed by Collado and Schmelz (2000) based upon their description of two new species in the genus Pristina, and their reassessment of the morphology of Pristina and Pristinella species.



[FAMILY TUBIFICIDAE] - suppressed; see Erséus et al. 2008 (citation in Literature Cited section, below).

Subfamily Tubificinae Vejdovský, 1876

Genus Aulodrilus Bretscher, 1899

Aulodrilus americanus Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966

Aulodrilus limnobius Bretscher, 1899

Aulodrilus pigueti Kowalewski, 1914

Aulodrilus pluriseta (Piguet, 1906)

Genus Ilyodrilus Eisen, 1879

Ilyodrilus templetoni (Southern, 1909)

Genus Isochaetides Hrab?, 1966; emmend. Brinkhurst, 1981

 +Isochaetides curvisetosus (Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966)

+Isochaetides freyi (Brinkhurst, 1965)

Genus Limnodrilus Claparède, 1862

Limnodrilus cervix Brinkhurst, 1963

Limnodrilus claparedianus Ratzel, 1868

Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède, 1862

Limnodrilus maumeensis Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966

Limnodrilus profundicola (Verrill, 1871)

Limnodrilus rubripenis Loden, 1977

Limnodrilus tortilipenis Wetzel, 1987

Limnodrilus udekemianus Claparède, 1862

Genus Potamothrix Vejdovský & Mrázek, 1902

Potamothrix bavaricus (Oschmann, 1913)

+Potamothrix bedoti (Piguet, 1913)

Potamothrix moldaviensis Vejdovský & Mrázek, 1902

Potamothrix vejdovskyi (Hrab?, 1941)

Genus Psammoryctides Hrab?, 1964

Psammoryctides californianus Brinkhurst, 1965

Genus Quistadrilus Brinkhurst, 1981

Quistadrilus multisetosus (Smith, 1900)

Genus Rhizodrilus Smith, 1900

Rhizodrilus lacteus Smith, 1900

Genus Spirosperma Eisen, 1879

Spirosperma ferox Eisen, 1879

+Spirosperma nikolskyi (Lasto?kin & Sokolskaya, 1935) 
(= Spirosperma variegatus Leidy, 1851 sensu Brinkhurst, 1962)

Genus Tasserkidrilus Holmquist, 1985

Tasserkidrilus kessleri (Hrab?, 1962)

Tasserkidrilus superiorensis (Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966) - considered to be restricted to the Great Lakes, but collected [by MJW, 16 April 2008] from a small, polluted stream in Marion Co., Illinois.

Genus Tubifex Lamarck, 1816

+Tubifex ignotus (Štolc, 1886)

Tubifex tubifex (Müller, 1774)

Genus Varichaetadrilus Brinkhurst & Kathman, 1983

Varichaetadrilus angustipenis (Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966)

Notes on V. angustipenis - A Nearctic species, V. angustipenis originally was described as Limnodrilus angustipenis from material collected by J. K. Hiltunen from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron; it was assigned to the genus Varichaetadrilus by R. O. Brinkhurst in 1989. This rarely collected species presently is known to occur in Alabama, Illinois, Louisiana, Manitoba, Michigan, North Carolina, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Ohio, Ontario, and Tennessee (Coates and Wetzel, manuscript in prep.); many of these distributional records, however, are from one or two collections, primarily oligotrophic lakes. During a continuing faunal survey of springs in southern Illinois (1990-), I have collected V. angustipenis from nine of 17 springs and their associated springruns (Webb et al. 1995; Webb et al. 1996, 1998b). Recently, I identified specimens from five springs in Texas [manuscript in prep.], from additional springs in western Illinois (Webb et al. 1998a), from caves in Illinois and Missouri [INHS Annelida Collection records; Wetzel and Taylor (2001)], and from several other streams in Illinois (many with groundwater influence). With the exception of seven stream sites in southern Illinois (Wetzel 1982a), extensive collecting and identification of aquatic oligochaetes throughout North America have revealed few specimens of this taxon.


Subfamily Rhyacodrilinae Hrab?, 1963

Genus Bothrioneurum Štolc, 1888

Bothrioneurum vejdovskyanum Štolc, 1888

Genus Branchiura Beddard, 1892

Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard, 1892

Genus Rhyacodrilus Bretscher, 1901

Rhyacodrilus coccineus (Vejdovský, 1875)

*Rhyacodrilus falciformis Bretscher, 1901

Rhyacodrilus montanus (Brinkhurst, 1965)

**Rhyacodrilus cf. sodalis (Eisen, 1879)

**Rhyacodrilus subterraneus Hrab?, 1963





Superfamily Lumbricoidea


Genus Eisenia Malm, 1877

Eisenia foetida Savigny, 1826

Genus Eiseniella Michaelsen, 1900

Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826)


Superfamily Megascolecoidea


Genus Sparganophilus Benham, 1892

Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895


Note: Please visit this current website highlighting the earthworms present in Illinois.



Order Rhynchobdellida


Note: several nomenclatural changes to taxa listed below have occurred; corrections will soon be made to the list, below. 
A current list of valid species and nomenclature is provided on the following website: 
Classification and checklist of the leeches occurring in North America north of Mexico.


Genus Actinobdella Moore, 1901

Actinobdella inequiannulata Moore, 1901

Genus Alboglossiphonia Luken, 1976

Alboglossiphonia heteroclita (Linnaeus, 1761)

Genus Desserobdella Barta & Sawyer, 1990

Desserobdella phalera (Graf, 1899)

Desserobdella picta (Verrill, 1872)

Genus Gloiobdella Ringuelet, 1978

Gloiobdella elongata (Castle, 1900)

Genus Glossiphonia Johnson, 1816

Glossiphonia complanata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Genus Helobdella R. Blanchard, 1896

Helobdella fusca (Castle, 1900)

Helobdella papillata (Moore, 1906)

Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helobdella triserialis (E. Blanchard, 1849)

Genus Placobdella R. Blanchard, 1893

Placobdella montifera Moore, 1906

Placobdella multilineata Moore, 1953

Placobdella ornata (Verrill, 1872)

Placobdella papillifera (Verrill, 1872)

Placobdella parasitica (Say, 1824)

Placobdella pediculata Hemingway, 1908

Genus Theromyzon Phillippi, 1867

Theromyzon biannulatum Klemm, 1977


 Genus Cystobranchus Diesing, 1859

Cystobranchus verrilli Meyer, 1940

Genus Myzobdella Leidy, 1851

Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851

Genus Piscicola de Blainville, 1818

Piscicola milneri (Verrill, 1874)

Piscicola punctata (Verrill, 1871)

Genus Piscicolaria Whitman, 1889

Piscicolaria reducta Meyer, 1940


Order Arhynchobdellida


Genus Haemopis Savigny, 1822

Haemopis marmorata (Say, 1824)

Haemopis terrestris (Forbes, 1890)


Genus Macrobdella Verrill, 1872

Macrobdella decora (Say, 1824)

Genus Philobdella Verrill, 1874

Philobdella gracilis Moore, 1901


Genus Dina R. Blanchard, 1892

Dina dubia Moore & Meyer, 1951

Dina parva Moore, 1912

Genus Erpobdella de Blainville, 1818

Erpobdella punctata punctata (Leidy, 1870)

Genus Mooreobdella Pawlowski, 1955

Mooreobdella fervida Verrill, 1871

Mooreobdella microstoma (Moore, 1901)

Genus Nephelopsis Verrill, 1872

Nephelopsis obscura Verrill, 1872





Barta J.R., and R.T. Sawyer. 1990. Definition of a new genus of glossiphoniid leech and a redescription of the type species, Clepsine picta Verrill, 1872. Can. J. Zool. 68(9): 1942-1950.

Bartolomaeus, T. 1997. Chaetogenesis in polychaetous Annelida - significance for annelid systematics and the position of the Pogonophora. Zoology - Analysis of Complex Systems 100(4): 348-364.

Brinkhurst, R O. 1982. Evolution in the Annelida. Can. J. Zool. 60(5): 1043-1059.

Brinkhurst, R O. 1985. The generic and subfamilial classification of Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 98(2): 470-475.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1986. Guide to the freshwater aquatic microdrile oligochaetes of North America. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 84. vi + 259 pp.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1988. A taxonomic analysis of the Haplotaxidae. Can. J. Zool. 66(10): 2243-2252.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1989. A phylogenetic analysis of the Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Can. J. Zool. 67(11): 2731-2739.

Brinkhurst, R. O. 1991a. Ancestors. Mitt. Hamburg Mus. Inst. 88(1): 97-110.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1991b. A phylogenetic analysis of the Tubificinae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Can. J. Zool. 69(2): 392-397.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1991c. A phylogenetic analysis of the Phreodrilidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Can. J. Zool. 69(8): 2031-2040.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1992. Evolutionary relationships within the Clitellata. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 24(12): 1202-1205.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1994. Evolutionary relationships within the Clitellata: an update. Megadrilogica 5(10: 109-112.

Brinkhurst, R.O. 1999. Lumbriculids, branchiobdellidans and leeches: an overview of recent progress in phylogenetic research on clitellates. Hydrobiologia 406: 281-290.

Brinkhurst, R.O., and S.R. Gelder. 1989. Did the lumbriculids provide the ancestors of the branchiobdellidans, acanthobdellidans and leeches? Hydrobiologia 180: 7-15.

Brinkhurst, R.O., and B.G.M. Jamieson. 1971. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON, and Buffalo, NY. xi + 860pp. [out of print].

Brinkhurst, R.O., and A.F.L. Nemec. 1987. A comparison of phenetic and phylogenetic methods applied to the systematics of Oligochaeta. Hydrobiologia 155: 65-74.

Brinkhurst, R.O., and M.J. Wetzel. 1984. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world: Supplement. A catalogue of new freshwater species, descriptions, and revisions. Canadian Tech. Rpt. Hydrography Ocean Sci. No. 44. v + 101 pp.

Coates, K.A. 1987. Phylogenetics of some Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta): A preliminary investigation of relationships to the Haplotaxidae. Hydrobiologia 155: 91-106.

Coates, K.A. 1989. Phylogeny and origins of Enchytraeidae. Hydrobiologia 180: 17-33.

Coates, K.A. and M.J. Wetzel. 1998. Manuscript in prep. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Clitellate annelids, including Aphanoneura, Branchiobdellae, Hirudinea, and Oligochaeta.

Collado, R., and R.M. Schmelz. 2000. Pristina silvicola and Pristina terrena spp. nov., two new soil-dwelling species of Naididae (Oligochaeta, Annelida) from the tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, with comments on the genus Pristinella. Journal of Zoology, London 252: 509-516.

Erséus, C. 1987. Phylogenetic analysis of the aquatic Oligochaeta under the principle of parsimony. Hydrobiologia 155: 75-89.

Erséus, C. 1990. Cladistic analysis of the subfamilies within the Tubificidae (Oligochaeta). Zool. Scr. 19(1): 57-63.

Erséus, C., M.J. Wetzel, and L. Gustavsson. 2008. ICZN rules - a farewell to Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata). Zootaxa 1744: 66-68 [9 April]. A downloadable PDF of this paper is available free (through open access) HERE.

Gelder, S.R. 1996. A review of the taxonomic nomenclature and a checklist of the species of the Branchiobdellae (Annelida: Clitellata). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 109(4): 653-663.

Gelder, S.R., and R.O. Brinkhurst. 1990. An assessment of the phylogeny of the Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata), using PAUP. Can. J. Zool. 68(6): 1318-1326.

Gelder, S.R., N.L. Gagnon, and K. Nelson. 2002. Taxonomic considerations and distribution of the Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata) of the North American continent. Northeastern Naturalist 9(4): 451-468.

Govedich, F.R., B.A. Bain, W.E. Moser, S.R. Gelder, R.W. Davies, and R.O. Brinkhurst. 2010. Annelida (Clitellata) Oligochaeta, Branchiobdellida, Hirudinida, and Acanthobdellida. Pages 385-436, In: J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich (eds). Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. Third Edition xiv + 1,021 pp. Academic Press / Elsevier, San Diego, CA. ISBN 978-0-12-374855-3. [] USD$ 139.95 / 93.95 Euro.

Holt, P.C. 1986. Newly established families of the order Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata) with a synopsis of the genera. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 99(4): 676-702.

Holt, P.C. 1989. Comments on the classification of the Clitellata. Hydrobiologia 180: 1-5.

Holt, P.C., and B.D. Opell. 1993. A checklist of and illustrated key to the genera and species of the Central and North American Cambarincolidae (Clitellata: Branchiobdellida). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 106(2): 251-295.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1978. Phylogenetic and phenetic systematics of the opisthoporous Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata). Evol. Theor. 3(4): 195-233.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1980. Preliminary discussion of an Hennigian analysis of the phylogeny and systematics of opisthoporous oligochaetes. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 17(2): 261-275.

Jamieson, B.G.M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. Cladistics 4: 367-410.

Jones, S.R.M., and P.T.K. Woo. 1990. Redescription of the leech Desserobdella phalera (Graf, 1899) n.comb. (Rhynchobdellida: Glossiphoniidae), with notes on its biology and occurrence on fishes. Can. J. Zool. 68(9): 1951-1955.

Kasprzak, K. 1982. Problems of the origin of oligochaetes (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Prezgl. Zool. 26: 145-160. (English translation, Can. Transl. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 4996).

Kasprzak, K. 1984. The previous and contemporary conceptions on phylogeny and systematic classifications of Oligochaeta (Annelida). Ann. Zool. (Polska Akad. Nauk Inst. Zool.) 38: 205-223.

Kathman, R.D., and R.O. Brinkhurst. 1998. Guide to the freshwater oligochaetes of North America. Aquatic Resources Center, College Grove, TN 37046 USA. iv + 264 pp. USD $55.00 (post paid). A link to ordering information for this guide is posted HERE.

Kathman, R.D., and M.J. Wetzel. 2003. Allonais inaequalis (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116(3): 548-556.

Klemm, D.J., ed. 1985. A guide to the freshwater Annelida (Polychaeta, naidid and tubificid Oligochaeta, and Hirudinea) of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. xiii + 198 pp.

Madill, J., K.A. Coates, M.J. Wetzel, S.R. Gelder. 1992. Common and scientific names of aphanoneuran and clitellate annelids of the United States and Canada. Soil Biol. Biochem. 24(12): 1259-1262.

Martin, P., I. Kaygorodova, D.Yu. Sherbakov and E. Verheyen. 2000. Rapidly evolving lineages impede the resolution of phylogenetic relationships among Clitellata (Annelida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15(3): 355-368.

Martin, P., E. Martinez-Ansemil, A. Pinder, T. Timm, and M.J. Wetzel. 2008. Global diversity of oligochaetous clitellates ("Oligochaeta"; Clitellata) in freshwater. Pp. 117-127, In E. V. Balian, C. Léveque, H. Segers & K. Martens, eds. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment. Hydrobiologia 595(1).

McHugh, D. 1999. Phylogeny of the Annelida: Sidall et al. (1998) rebutted. Cladistics 15: 85-89.

McHugh, D. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of the Annelida. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78(11): 1873-1884.


Nemec, A.F.L., and R.O. Brinkhurst. 1987. A comparison of methodological approaches to the subfamilial classification of the Naididae (Oligochaeta). Can. J. Zool. 65(3): 691-707.

Omodeo, P. 1998. History of Clitellata. Italian Journal of Zoology 65: 51-73.

Omodeo, P. 2000. Evolution and biogeography of megadriles (Annelida, Clitellata). Italian Journal of Zoology 67(2): 179-201.

Parker, S.P. 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. McGraw Hill, New York. 1,232 pp.

Purschke, G. 1999. Terrestrial polychaetes -- models for the evolution of the Clitellata (Annelida)? Hydrobiologia 406: 87-99.

Purschke, G., W. Westheide, D. Rohde, and R.O. Brinkhurst. 1993. Morphological reinvestigation and phylogenetic relationship of Acanthobdella peledina (Annelida, Clitellata). Zoomorphology 113(2): 91-101.

Readel, A.M., C.A. Phillips, and M.J. Wetzel. 2008. Leech parasitism in a turtle assemblage: effects of host and environmental characteristics. Copeia 2008(1): 225-231.

Reynolds, J.W., and D.G. Cook. 1976. Nomenclatura oligochaetologica. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. Univ. New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick. x + 217 pp. [This catalog, and the first supplement, cited below, are available from University of New Brunswick Bookstore, P. O. Box 4400, Fredericton, NB, Canada E3B 5A3, for CAN$20.00 (which includes GST {Canada's goods and services tax}; the second and third supplements, also cited below, are available, at no charge, from the New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, NB, Canada E2K 1E5.].

Reynolds, J.W., and D.G. Cook. 1981. Nomenclatura oligochaetologica. Supplementum primum. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. [published by the University of New Brunswick] Fredericton, New Brunswick. v + 39 pp. [to order, see note above].

Reynolds, J.W., and D.G. Cook. 1989. Nomenclatura oligochaetologica. Supplementum secundum. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. New Brunswick Mus. Monogr. Ser. (Nat. Sci.) No. 8. v + 37 pp. [this second supplement is available, at no charge, from the New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, NB, Canada E2K 1E5.].

Reynolds, J.W., and D.G. Cook. 1993. Nomenclatura oligochaetologica. Supplementum tertium. A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens of the Oligochaeta. New Brunswick Mus. Monogr. Ser. (Nat. Sci.) No. 9. vi + 33 pp. [this third supplement is available, at no charge, from the New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, NB, Canada E2K 1E5.].

Reynolds, J.W. and M.J. Wetzel. 2004. Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in North America north of Mexico. Megadrilogica 9(11): 71-98.

Sawyer, R.T. 1986a. Leech biology and behaviour. Volume I. Anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. Clarendon Press, Oxford. xiv + pp. 1-417 + index.

Sawyer, R.T. 1986b. Leech biology and behaviour. Volume II. Feeding biology, ecology, and systematics. Clarendon Press, Oxford. xiv + pp. 419-793 + index.

Sawyer, R.T. 1986c. Leech biology and behaviour. Volume III. Bibliography. Clarendon Press, Oxford. x + pp. 799-1,065.

Siddall, M.E. and E.M. Burreson. 1995. Phylogeny of the Euhirudinea: independent evolution of blood feeding by leeches? Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1048-1064.

Siddall, M.E. and E.M. Burreson. 1996. Leeches (Oligochaeta?: Euhirudinea), their phylogeny and the evolution of life-history strategies. Hydrobiologia 334: 277-285.

Siddall, M. E. and E. M. Burreson. 1998. Phylogeny of leeches (Hirudinea) based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9(1): 156-162.

Siddall, M.E., K. Fitzhugh and K.A. Coates. 1998. Problems determining the phylogenetic position of echiurans and pogonophorans with limited data. Cladistics 14: 401-410.

Sima, P. 1993. Phylogeny and classification of annelids. Pages 13-25, In: V. Vetvicka, P. Sima, E. L. Cooper, M. Bilej and P. Roch. 1993. Immunology of annelids. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (USA), Ann Arbor, MI (USA), London, Tokyo. 299 pp.

Timm, T. 1981. On the origin and evolution of aquatic Oligochaeta. Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Biologia 30(3): 174-181.

Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G., I.B. Kuffner, L. McDowell and K.A. Coates. 1997. Paraphyly of the annelids: all annelids are not segmented worms. Bulletin of Marine Science 60(2): 624.

Webb, D.W., M.J. Wetzel, P.C. Reed, L.R. Phillippe, and M.A. Harris. 1995. Aquatic biodiversity in Illinois springs. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 68(2)suppl.: 93-107.

Webb, D. W., M.J. Wetzel, P.C. Reed, L.R. Phillippe, and T.C. Young. 1996. Biodiversity, hydrogeology, and water quality of 10 karst springs in the Salem Plateau Section of Illinois. Pp. 146-185, In: Davis, M., Editor. Research on agricultural chemicals in Illinois groundwater: Status and future directions VI. Illinois Groundwater Consortium, Office of Research Development and Administration, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Webb, D.W., M.J. Wetzel, and L.R. Phillippe. 1998. [Webb et al. 1998a]. The aquatic biota and groundwater quality of Illinois springs in the Lincoln Hills, Wisconsin Driftless, and Northern Till Plains Sections of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 1998 (6). 164 pp. Prepared for the Environmental Protection Trust Fund Commission and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Division of Energy and Environmental Assessment, Office of Realty and Environmental Planning, Springfield.

Webb, D.W., M.J. Wetzel, P.C. Reed, L.R. Phillippe, and T.C. Young. 1998. [Webb et al. 1998b]. The macroinvertebrate biodiversity, water quality, and hydrogeology of ten karst springs in the Salem Plateau Section of Illinois, USA. Pp. 39-48, In: L. Botosaneanu (ed.). Studies in Crenobiology - The biology of springs and springbrooks. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 261 pp. ISBN 90-73348-04-8.

Westheide, W., D. McHugh, G. Purschke and G. Rouse. 1999. Systematization of the Annelida: different approaches. Hydrobiologia 402: 291-307.

Wetzel, M.J. 1982a. The distribution and relative abundance of aquatic Oligochaeta in the Cache River system, southern Illinois, in relation to water quality. Unpublished MSc. thesis, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston. x + 182 pp.

Wetzel, M.J. 1982b. Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in Kansas, with notes on their distribution and ecology. Technical Publication of the State Biological Survey of Kansas 12:112-130.

Wetzel, M.J. 1992. Aquatic Annelida of Illinois: Introduction and checklist of species. Trans. Illinois St. Acad. Sci. 85(1 and 2): 87-101.

Wetzel, M.J., S.V. Fend, K.A. Coates, R.D. Kathman, and S.R. Gelder. 2009. Taxonomy, systematics, and ecology of the freshwater oligochaetes and branchiobdellidans (Annelida, Clitellata) of North America. A workbook. 1 November 2009. vi + 280 pp. + color plates.

Wetzel, M.J., and S.J. Taylor. 2001. First records of freshwater oligochaetes (Annelida, Clitellata) from caves in Illinois and Missouri, USA. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63(3): 99-104.



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