Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Non-Marine Gastropods of the Clade Heterobranchia

This is one of the six major gastropod lineages and contains three informal groups: the Lower Heterobranchia, the Opisthobranchia and the Pulmonata.  The phylogentic arrangements shown below is from Bouchet & Rocroi (2005). Recent research by Jörger et al. (2010) does not support the monophyly of any of these three groups.  



Within the Pulmonata, a large number of terrestrial species are found in the Eupulmonata and a few are found in one family in the Basommatophora.  Families with terrestrial species are in green in the list below. A few freshwater species are found in both the Lower Heterobrancia and the Pulmonata.  Within the Lower Heterobranchia, freshwater species are found in two superfamilies, the Valvatoidea and the Glacidorboidea. Within the Pulmonata, freshwater species are found in the Basommatophora, in the clade Hygrophila.  Families with freshwater species are in blue in the list below.  The Opistobranchia are mostly marine snails and slugs.  Families with exclusively marine species are in black in the list below.

Clade Heterobranchia

Informal group "Lower Heterobranchia" (= Allogastropoda)

Unassigned to a superfamily

 Family Cimidae

 Family Orbitestellidae

 Family Tjaernoeiidae

 Family Xylodisculidae

 Superfamily Acteonoidea

 Family Acteonidae

Family Aplustridae

Family Bullinidae

Superfamily Architectonicoidea

Family Architectonicidae

Superfamily Glacidorboidea

Family Glacidorbidae

Superfamily Mathildoidea

Family Mathildidae

Superfamily Omalogyroidea

Family Omalogyridae

Superfamily Pyramidelloidea

Family Pyramidellidae

Family Amathinidae

Family Murchisonellidae

Superfamily Ringiculoidea

Family Ringiculidae

Superfamily Rissoelloidea

Family Rissoellidae

Superfamily Valvatoidea

Family Valvatidae - the valve snails, five species are found in Illinois

Family Cornirostridae

Family Hyalogyrinidae

Informal Group Pulmonata - Contains the clades Basommatophora and Eupulmonata

Informal Group Basommatophora

 Superfamily Amphiboloidea

Family Amphibolidae

Superfamily Siphonarioidea

Family Siphonariidae

Clade Hygrophila

 Superfamily Chilinoidea

Family Chilinidae

Family Latiidae

Superfamily Acroloxoidea

Family Acroloxidae

Superfamily Lymnaeoidea

Family Lymnaeidae - 14 Illinois species

Superfamily Planorboidea

Family Planorbidae - 18 Illinos species

Family Physidae - 5 Illinois species

Clade Eupulmonata - Contains the clades Systellommatophora and Stylommatophora

 Superfamily Trimusculoidea

 Family Trimusculidae

 Superfamily Otinoidea

Family Otinidae

Family Smeagolidae

Superfamily Ellobioidea

Family Ellobiidae - 2 IL species

Clade Systellommatophora (= Gymnomorpha)

 Superfamily Onchidioidea

Family Onchidiidae - this family contains both marine and terrestrial slugs

Superfamily Veronicelloidea

Family Veronicellidae

Family Rathouisiidae

Clade Stylommatophora - Contains the subclades ElasmognathaOrthurethra and the informal group Sigmurethra

Subclade Elasmognatha

Superfamily Succineoidea

Family Succineidae - 12 IL species

Superfamily Athoracophoroidea

Family Athoracophoridae

Subclade Orthurethra

 Superfamily Partuloidea

 Family Partulidae

 Family Draparnaudiidae

Superfamily Achatinelloidea

Family Achatinellidae

Superfamily Cochlicopoidea

Family Cochlicopidae - 4 IL species

Family Amastridae

Superfamily Pupilloidea

Family Pupillidae

Family Argnidae

Family Chondrinidae

Family Lauriidae

Family Orculidae

Family Pleurodiscidae

Family Pyramidulidae

Family Spelaeoconchidae

Family Spelaeodiscidae

Family Strobilopsidae - 3 IL species

Family Valloniidae - 7 IL species

Family Vertiginidae (formerly in the Pupillidae) - 27 Il species 

Superfamily Enoidea

Family Enidae

Family Cerastidae

Informal Group Sigmurethra

 Superfamily Clausilioidea

Family Clausiliidae

Superfamily Orthalicoidea

Family Orthalicidae (formerly in the Bulumilidae) - 1 IL species

Family Cerionidae

Family Coelociontidae

Family Megaspiridae

Family Placostylidae

Family Urocoptidae

 Superfamily Achatinoidea

Family Achatinidae

Family Ferussaciidae

Family Micractaeonidae

Family Subulinidae

Superfamily Aillyoidea

Family Aillyidae

Superfamily Testacelloidea

Family Testacellidae

Family Oleacinidae

Family Spiraxidae

Superfamily Papillodermatoidea

Family Papillodermatidae

Superfamily Streptaxoidea

Family Streptaxidae

Superfamily Rhytidoidea

Family Rhytididae

Family Chlamydephoridae

Family Haplotrematidae - 1 IL species

Family Scolodontidae

 Superfamily Acavoidea

Family Acavidae

Family Caryodidae

Family Dorcasiidae

Family Macrocyclidae

Family Megomphicidae

Family Strophocheilidae

Superfamily Plectopyloidea

Family Plectopylidae

Family Corillidae

Family Sculptariidae

Superfamily Punctoidea

Family Punctidae - 3 IL species

Family Charopidae

Family Cystopeltidae

Family Discidae - 6 IL species

Family Endodontidae

Family Helicodiscidae - 5 IL species

Family Oreohelicidae

Family Thyrophorellidae

Superfamily Sagdoidea

Family Sagdidae

limacoid clade

Superfamily Staffordioidea

Family Staffordiidae

Superfamily Dyakioidea

Family Dyakiidae

Superfamily Gastrodontoidea

Family Gastrodontidae (formerly in the Zonitidae) - 8 IL species

Family Chronidae

Family Euconulidae (formerly in the Helicarionidae)  - 6 IL species

Family Oxychilidae (formerly in the Zonitidae) - 14 IL species, two of which are introduced

Family Pristilomatidae (formerly in the Zonitidae) - 2 IL species

Family Trochomorphidae

Superfamily Parmacelloidea

Family Parmacellidae

Family Milacidae

Family Trigonochlamydidae

Superfamily Zonitoidea

Family Zonitidae

Superfamily Helicarionoidea

Family Helicarionidae

Family Ariophantidae

Family Urocyclidae

Superfamily Limacoidea

Family Limacidae - 2 IL species, both introduced

Family Agriolimacidae - (formerly in the Limacidae) 2 IL species, one of which is introduced

Family Boettgerillidae

Family Vitrinidae

Two other superfamilies are part of the clade Sigmurethra, but they are not in the limacoid clade:

Superfamily Arionoidea

Family Arionidae - 2 IL species

Family Anadenidae

Family Ariolimacidae

Family Binneyidae

Family Oopeltidae

Family Philomycidae - 6 IL species

Superfamily Helicoidea

Family Helicidae

Family Bradybaenidae

Family Camaenidae

Family Cepolidae

Family Cochlicellidae

Family Elonidae

Family Epiphragmophoridae

Family Halolimnohelicidae

Family Helicodontidae

Family Helminthoglyptidae

Family Humboldtianidae

Family Hygromiidae

Family Monadeniidae

Family Pleurodontidae

Family Polygyridae - 27 IL species

Family Sphincterochilidae

Family Thysanophoridae

Family Trissexodontidae

Family Xanthonychidae


Literature Cited

Jörger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T., Schrödl M. (2010). "On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 323.doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-323.

Bouchet P., Rocroi J.-P., Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005)."Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks) 47(1-2): 1–397.

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