Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Upland sandpiper
Bartramia longicauda

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Charadriiformes
  • Family: Scolopacidae
  • Genus: Bartramia
  • Species: Bartramia longicauda
  • Authority: Bechstein

Comments on taxonomy:
Other names: Bartram's sandpiper, upland plover *08*. Bartramian sandpiper; field plover; grass plover; highland plover; hillbird; papebottle; pasture-bird; pasture plover; prairie pigeon; prairie plover; prairie snipe; quaily; uplander *03*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Mid April-mid September. Uncommon migrant and summer resident *01*. Noted in 29 counties during summer in 1979 and 1980 *02*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
On Illinois endangered species list of 1977; at low population level with few nest sites known; continued disappearance of habitat *02*. Also protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 *23* and the Illinois Wildlife Code, 1971 *24*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types: No records.

Associated tree species: No records.

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Reported in open grasslands near airports, schools, roadsides, other areas *05,18,19,20,21*. Prefers pastures and hayfields (i.e. alfalfa and clover fields) and exotic or native prairie of short grasses *01,02,06,11*.

Important plant and animal association: Vegetation structure and height most important for nesting and feeding.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Cropland and pasture Grass - forb Spring/summer
Transportation, communication, utilities Grass - forb Spring/summer
Other urban or built-up land Grass - forb Spring/summer
Prairie Grass - forb Spring/summer
Cropland Grass - forb Spring/summer
Forageland Grass - forb Spring/summer
Early abandoned cropland Grass - forb Spring/summer
Early abandoned forageland Grass - forb Spring/summer
Unknown Illinois land/water classification Grass - forb Spring/summer

Species-habitat interrelations: Class (cropland and pasture) season (spring/summer) function (breeding/feeding) value (high) class (developed) season (spring/ summer) function (breeding/feeding) value (high). Pastures and hayfields are the most important habitat for nesting and feeding *01,02,04,06,08,09,11,13,14,15*. Open grasslands adjacent to airports, schools, roadsides and other areas appear to provide attractive habitat in Illinois, replacing disappearing pasture and hayfields *02,05,07,18,19,20,21*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Cropland and pasture Grass - forb Fall Terrestrial surface - Flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface - Flowers and fruits of forbs
Terrestrial surface - Arthropods
Terrestrial surface - Invertebrates
Cropland and pasture Grass - forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface - Flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface - Flowers and fruits of forbs
Terrestrial surface - Arthropods
Terrestrial surface - Invertebrates

Comments on feed-guilding:
Living in grasslands (i.e. pastures, hayfields) feeding on almost entirely terrestrial insects such as grasshoppers, crickets, weevils, insect larvae. May eat some weed seeds and waste wheat *03,08,09,13*. Prefer to feed in cover <10 cm high (i.e. grazed pasture, mowed hayfields) *14*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Cropland and pasture Grass - forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, herbaceous litter
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation

Comments on breed-guilding:
Prefers to nest in open grasslands in vegetation between 15.5-30.8 cm tall *13,14,16*. Both sexes participate in nest-scraping, with the male being more persistent. Male courts by raising tail, running toward female uttering a short gutteral whistle before copulation *08*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Dicotyledonae (dicots) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): Wheat Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): Foxtail grass Fruit/seeds
Invertebrates Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Unknown
Annelida: Ogliochaetas (earthworms) Unknown
Mollusca Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Arthropoda Unknown
Chilopoda (centipedes) Unknown
Diplopoda (millipedes) Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Nymph
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Adult
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Adult
Important:
Arthropoda Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Nymph
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Juvenile:
Invertebrates Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Unknown
Annelida: Ogliochaetas (earthworms) Unknown
Arthropoda Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Nymph
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Adult
Adult:
Dicotyledonae (dicots) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): Wheat Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): Foxtail grass Fruit/seeds
Invertebrates Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Unknown
Annelida: Ogliochaetas (earthworms) Unknown
Mollusca Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Arthropoda Unknown
Chilopoda (centipedes) Unknown
Diplopoda (millipedes) Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Nymph
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Adult
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Adult

Comments on food habits: 
General: See comments on adult food habits
Juvenile: Both adults and young feed on insects and prefer to feed in vegetation up to 10 cm high *14*.
Adult: Diet composed primarily of terrestrial insects such as grasshoppers, crickets, weevils as well as beetles, moths, ants, flies, bugs, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, snails, earthworms and larvae of beetles and lepidopterans. Also may eat some weed seeds and waste small grain such as wheat *03,07,08,09,13,14*.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: unknown
  • Ecotones: crop field/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: unknown
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- forb (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- grass (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- herbaceous canopy ave. ht: unknown
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland
  • Human associations: see comments
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Ecotones: crop field/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland

Resting juvenile:

  • Ecotones: crop field/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland

Feeding adult:

  • Ecotones: crop field/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland

Resting adult:

  • Ecotones: crop field/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland

Breeding adult:

  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: crop field/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/old field
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: climax grassland

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Associated with open grassland habitats such as pastures, hayfields and prairie remnants. Also found in grasslands adjacent to airports, schools and other areas *02,05,08,11,18,19,20,21*. Conversion of pasture and hayfields to row crop production and elimination of native prairie limits necessary habitat *01,02,05,06,11*.
Feeding juvenile: Presumably acquires same diet as adult and follow adults through feeding areas *00,14,15*.
Resting juvenile: Assume rests in general habitat used by adults *09,14,15*.
Feeding adult: Feeds among grasslands of low density and height, generally 10 cm or less in height such as grazed pastures and mowed hayfields *09,13,14, 15*. Territory consists of nesting site plus a loafing and feeding area which is shared with other individuals *09*.
Resting adult: Presumably rests in general habitat used. Loafing areas associated with feeding areas, generally of low vegetation *09,14,15*.
Breeding adult: Nests usually located in grasses and forbs at heights between 15 and 30+ cm. Often found in tufts of grass that conceal it *03,07,08,09,13, 14,15,16*. Nests were scratched out of shallow depressions lined with small bits of dried grass *10,13*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: NATIVE *01*.

Physical description: Length: 11-12 inches, wingspread 17-20 inches, weight: 6-7 oz; males 137.3 g, females 163.9 g *03,07,08,17*. Adults: of both sexes brown, streaked plumage with no conspicuous marks. Has a dovelike head with blackish crown, white eye ring and postocular stripe. Has a long neck with sides, foreneck and chest a pale buff with black streaking. Chin, throat and rest of underparts are white, with v-shaped markings of black on the breast, becoming vertical bars on the sides and flanks. The axillaries and under wing coverts are white with blackish bars and grayish brown and buffy margins, and the rump and uppertail coverts are blackish with the longer uppertail coverts becoming spotted with grayish brown and buffy. The wedge- shaped tail is grayish brown in middle to pinkish buff on outside with all variously spotted or barred with black. The wingcoverts are mostly grayish brown margined with buffy primaries spotted with white and the secondaries extensively barred and margined with grayish brown and buffy white. The iris is brown, the bill is blackish above, becoming brownish or yellowish below and basally, and the legs and toes are yellowish gray *03,07,08,17*. Juveniles: have dark blackish brown scapulars that lack distinct barring and dark brown tertials that have pale buffy edges and notches; the wing coverts are pale brown, with pale buff fringes and subterminal crescent-shaped brown spots *08*.

Reproduction and behavior: Birds generally arrive in mid-April in Illinois and begin to nest in May. They are most visible from 15 April to 31 May between dawn and 10 am and between 4 pm and dusk when males are courting and defending territories *11*. In Wisconsin, birds also arrived in mid-April and are often already paired showing courtship behavior and setting up home ranges *08,09*. They perform ritualized courtship acts in flight and song, often seen alighting on fenceposts, etc. *03,07,08,09,11,13*. Nesting activities begin 2-3 weeks after arriving and the usual four egg clutches hatch in mid-June to July for an incubation period of 21-26 days *03,07,08,09,10,12*. The eggs are cream to pink-buff, speckled or spotted with red-brown and average 45 x 32.5 mm in size *03,08,13*. Both sexes incubate one clutch per year, though renesting does occur *08,09,10,12*. Higgins and Kirsch (1975) report 94% hatching of 400 eggs *10*. Nesting territories are generally grouped and consist of a nesting site plus a loafing and feeding ground which is shared *08,09,22*. Nests are scratched out shallow depressions usually lined with dried grass bits, found in pastures, domestic hayfields and native prairie. Nests are generally in vegetation between 15 and 30 cm high and concealed. Birds in Illinois have also been found to use open grasslands near airports, schools, other areas and roadsides and no-till cornfields *02,03,04,05,06,08,09,10,11,13,14,16,18,19,20,21*. Age at sexual maturity and maximum age unknown. Some suggest young tended by single adult (usually the male), while others report both parents care for young up to 30-34 days when they begin to fly *03, 08*. Home range size in Minnesota of a pair was 8.3 ha for the male and 85.6 ha for the female. The male incubated the clutch 82% of the time and tended the lone precocial chick in a nearby grazed pasture *15*. Adults lead broods to low vegetation of pastures, hayfields, old fields or similar grassland where other individuals occur *09, 14*. Flocks appear after chicks become independent, migration approaches, & transients move into area *09*. Birds spend 110 to 122 days on their summering grounds in North Dakota, leave Wisconsin in August and September and leave Illinois in September *01,09,10*.

Limiting factors: Past exploitation of the species and land use changes has greatly limited population levels in Illinois and through much of its range *01,02,06,08,11,13,14,16*. Illinois currently has little upland sandpiper habitat and efforts are now taking place to get a better handle on population size *02,05,11*. Little is known about other limiting factors. Nest predation may occur by crows, skunks, mink, fox or be destroyed by cattle or field tillage operations *09,15,16*.

Population parameters: Population trends presumably continues downward from graber and graber (1963) as suitable nesting habitat declines *02,06*. A 34% nest mortality rate was found in wisconsin, which is considerably less than other upland ground nesting birds *09*. One banded bird lived to 5 years *03*. Most population parameters appear to be unknown.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Improving habitat on adjacent areas to increase carrying capacity
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Locating, designing, and constructing fences
  • Seasonal restriction of human use of habitats
  • Controlling pollution
  • No-till farming
  • Haying/mowing
  • Planting cover crops/preparatory
  • Grazing management to allow vegetative recovery
  • Controlled grazing of domestic livestock
  • Deferred grazing
  • Rotational grazing
  • Deferred rotational grazing
  • Rest rotational grazing
  • Controlling wind and water erosion
  • Reseeding roadsides coupled with no roadside mowing until august 1
  • Creating/maintaining grass waterways
  • Planting native vegetation
  • Planting cover crops until native plants are established
  • Planting along roadsides
  • Periodically burning prairie areas
  • Developing/maintaining native vegetation
  • Mowing
  • Develop/maintain prairie
  • Fencing nesting cover to prevent grazing by livestock
  • Changing vegetation to improve wildlife habitat
  • Right-of-way management for wildlife

Adverse:

  • Locating, designing, and constructing fences
  • Clean farming
  • Haying/mowing
  • Applying pesticide on agricultural land
  • Applying herbicide
  • Applying insecticide
  • Grazing management to allow vegetative recovery
  • Uncontrolled grazing by domestic livestock
  • Strip mining
  • Applying pesticides
  • Applying insecticides
  • Mowing
  • Application of pesticides
  • Application of insecticides
  • Controlling undesirable vertebrate species (feral dogs, etc.)
  • Fencing nesting cover to prevent grazing by livestock

Existing:

  • Performing special survey prior to prescription

Comments on management practices:
Native prairie habitat in Illinois is now basically nonexistent *02*. Graber and Graber (1963) noted population decline in the state, but used mixed hay and alfalfa fields *06*. Recent evidence suggests tolerance of disturbed habitat such as grasslands near airports, schools, other open areas and even no-till cornfields and roadsides *02,05,07,18,19,20,21*. Birkenholz (1975) reports of bluegrass use in prairie area *04*. Kirsch and Higgins (1976) report native grassland use over domestic hayfields and tilled croplands. Periodic burning of prairie produces most suitable habitat *02,16*. Conversion of marginal croplands to permanent grass cover because of soil eriosion, no-till farming and conservation tillage all may enhance habitat *00*. Preservation and proper management of pastureland and hayfields along with preservation of natural prairie areas and display perch placement all could benefit species *00,02*.

 


REFERENCES

0. PHIPPS, M.A. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 61820. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H. DAVID. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER. VOL. IX. 156 P.

2. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. OF CONSER. 189 P.

3. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

4. BIRKENHOLZ, DALE E. 1975. THE SUMMER BIRDS OF GOOSE LAKE PRAIRIE NATURE PRESERVE, 1970-1973 CHICAGO ACAD. SCI. NAT. HIST. MISC. 193: 1-11.

5. STONE, SALLY F. 1981. CITIZEN'S SANDPIPER WATCH. ILLINOIS WILDLIFE 17(3):12.

6. GRABER, RICHARD R. AND JEAN W. GRABER. 1963. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BIRD POPULATIONS IN ILLINOIS 1906-1909 AND 1956-1958. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV. BULL. 28(3):383-528.

7. STOUT, G.A. ED. 1967. THE SHOREBIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA. NEW YORK: VIKING PRESS.

8. JOHNSGARD, PAUL A. 1981. THE PLOVERS, SANDPIPERS AND SNIPES OF THE WORLD. LINCOLN: UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA PRESS.

9. BLISS, IRVEN O. AND ARTHUR S. HAWKINS. 1939. THE UPLAND PLOVER AT FAVILLE GROVE, WISCONSIN. THE WILSON BULLETIN 51:202-220.

10. HIGGINS, KENNETH F. AND LES M. KIRSCH. 1975. SOME ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE UPLAND SANDPIPER IN NORTH DAKOTA. THE WILSON BULLETIN 98:96-101.

11. BECKER, CARL. 1979. UPLAND SANDPIPER - AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN NEED OF HELP. IAB 188:34-35.

12. GOODPOSTER, WOODROW AND KARL MASBOWSKI. 1948. INCUBATION OF THE UPLAND PLOVER. THE WILSON BULLETIN 60:188.

13. BENT, A.C. 1929. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN SHOREBIRDS. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 146. PT. 2.

14. DORIO, JOHN C. AND ALFRED H. GROVE. 1979. NESTING AND BROOD REARING HABITAT OF THE UPLAND SANDPIPER. JOURNAL OF THE MINNESOTA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 45(1):8-11.

15. AILES, IRWIN W. AND JOHN E. TOEPFER. 1977. HOME RANGE AND DAILY MOVEMENT OF RADIO-TAGGED UPLAND SANDPIPERS IN CENTRAL WISCONSIN. THE INLAND BIRD BANDING NEWS 49(5):203-212.

16. KIRSCH, LEO M. AND KENNETH F. HIGGINS. 1976. UPLAND SANDPIPER NESTING AND MANAGEMENT IN NORTH DAKOTA. WILDLIFE SOCIETY BULLETIN 4(1):16-20.

17. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1982. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT AUK 99(3).

18. KLEEN, VERNON M. 1980. FIELD NOTES, (1979) BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 191:25-34.

19. KLEEN, VERNON M. 1981. FIELD NOTES, (1980) BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 195:34-47.

20. KLEEN, VERNON M. 1982. FIELD NOTES, (1981) BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 199:21-39.

21. KLEEN, VERNON M. 1983. FIELD NOTES (1982) BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 203:25-39.

22. BOWEN, D.E. 1975. COLONIALITY IN THE UPLAND SANDPIPER. TRANS. KANSAS ACAD. SCI. 78(1-2):13.

23. U.S. FISH WILDL. SERV. 1983. CODES OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDL. & FISHERIES. CHAP. 1. PP. 11-18. 50CFR10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GEN. SERV. ADMIN. OCT. 1.

24. ILL. DEPT. CONSERV. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILL. REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 P.

 


 

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