Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Bewick's wren
Thryomanes bewickii

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Troglodytidae
  • Genus: Thryomanes
  • Species: Thryomanes bewickii
  • Authority: Audubon

Comments on taxonomy:
Other names: Baird's wren; long-tailed wren; nicasio wren; sooty wren; Texas wren; Vigors' wren *04*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Mid-April to late October. Uncommon migrant and summer resident (locally) in central and south. Rare migrant and summer migrant in north. Occassional winter resident in south, and rare winter resident in central *01*. Recent nesting evidence includes: a nest in a crevice of a cliff found in Johnson Co., may 1981; a successful nest in Jefferson Co., 1983, and one adult and one immature sighted in Jersey Co., May 1983 *18,19*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species (F)

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
A migratory species protected by various federal statutes and the Illinois Wildlife Code of 1971 *20,21*. On the state endangered and threatened vertebrate list. Once common breeder in central and southern Ill. has apparently declined because of competition from the house wren *02*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Unknown Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Unknown Spring/summer
Unknown Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Unknown Fall

Associated tree species:

  • Ash
  • Hawthorn
  • Oak
  • Species other than those on IFWIS list

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Bewick's wren prefers brushy, scrubby areas, open woodlands, upland thickets and hills, brush piles, hedgerows and fencerows. They also use orchards, gardens and outbuildings and other structures near brushy areas. They may also use riparian woodland near streams *01,02, 03,04,05,07,08,09,10,11,12,14,15,16,17*. Evidence is vague as to exactly what kind and size of trees or shrubs are used; may be found in trees 100 feet high or in brush 3 feet high or less, though thick cover of undergrowth brush seemingly most attractive *02,03,04,05,09, 14*.

Important plant and animal association: House wren.
Some literature states competition from house wren displaces Bewick's wren and has declined *01,02,05,07,08,10*. Other evidence suggests tolerance and coexistence between the two species *07,08,09,15,23*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Unknown forest cover type Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Unknown forest cover type Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Residential Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Residential Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticulture areas Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticulture areas Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Deciduous forest land Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Deciduous forest land Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Upland forest Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Upland forest Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Floodplain forest Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Floodplain forest Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Savanna Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Savanna Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Field division Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Field division Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Natural community restoration Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Natural community restoration Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Orchards, nurseries, arboretums, etc. Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Orchards, nurseries, arboretums, etc. Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall
Roadways, buildings, cemeteries, etc. Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer
Roadways, buildings, cemeteries, etc. Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall

Species-habitat interrelations: Bewick's wren may use a variety of habitat situations, adjusting or adapting to suit their environment. They prefer brushy, open woodland cover that provides thick vegetation for foraging, nesting and shelter *02,03,04,05,12,14*. Literature reports use of human associated habitat of residential areas, gardens, and orchards where they may utilize a multitude of places for nesting *03,04,05,07,10,16*. Open woodland, upland thickets, and floodplain or riparian woodland may also provide important habitat, though specific tree species and sizes are not mentioned in detail, thick low undergrowth seems the chief requisite *02,03,04,05,07,11,14,15,17*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Residential Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Tree bole- arthropods
Tree canopy- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Shrub strata- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree bole- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree canopy- invertebrates other than arthropods
Residential Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Tree bole- arthropods
Tree canopy- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Shrub strata- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree bole- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree canopy- invertebrates other than arthropods
Orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticulture areas Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Tree bole- arthropods
Tree canopy- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Shrub strata- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree bole- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree canopy- invertebrates other than arthropods
Orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticulture areas Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Tree bole- arthropods
Tree canopy- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Shrub strata- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree bole- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree canopy- invertebrates other than arthropods
Deciduous forest land Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Tree bole- arthropods
Tree canopy- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Shrub strata- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree bole- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree canopy- invertebrates other than arthropods
Deciduous forest land Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Tree bole- arthropods
Tree canopy- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Shrub strata- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree bole- invertebrates other than arthropods
Tree canopy- invertebrates other than arthropods>

Comments on feed-guilding:
Bewick's wrens generally forage on or near the ground, chiefly gleaning small insects from foliage. They forage on lower, larger trunks and branches of weeds, bushes and trees, beginning at base working vertically, in a spiral fashion and may cling to trunk moving up in short hops. Different foraging approaches are used for different floral types *03,04,05,11,14*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Residential Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, cliff in cavity near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, artificial structures (e.g. ground debris, bridges, trestles, rooftops)
Shrub strata, artificial structures extending into shrub strata
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous snag
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous cavity user
Artificial structure (e.g. telephone and power poles, chimney, antenna)
Residential Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fall Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, cliff in cavity near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, artificial structures (e.g. ground debris, bridges, trestles, rooftops)
Shrub strata, artificial structures extending into shrub strata
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous snag
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous cavity user
Artificial structure (e.g. telephone and power poles, chimney, antenna)
Orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticulture areas Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, cliff in cavity near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, artificial structures (e.g. ground debris, bridges, trestles, rooftops)
Shrub strata, artificial structures extending into shrub strata
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous snag
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous cavity user
Artificial structure (e.g. telephone and power poles, chimney, antenna)
Orchards, groves, vineyards, nurseries, ornamental horticulture areas Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fal Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, cliff in cavity near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, artificial structures (e.g. ground debris, bridges, trestles, rooftops)
Shrub strata, artificial structures extending into shrub strata
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous snag
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous cavity user
Artificial structure (e.g. telephone and power poles, chimney, antenna)
Deciduous forest land Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, cliff in cavity near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, artificial structures (e.g. ground debris, bridges, trestles, rooftops)
Shrub strata, artificial structures extending into shrub strata
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous snag
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous cavity user
Artificial structure (e.g. telephone and power poles, chimney, antenna)
Deciduous forest land Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
Summer/fal Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, cliff in cavity near valley floor
Terrestrial surface, artificial structures (e.g. ground debris, bridges, trestles, rooftops)
Shrub strata, artificial structures extending into shrub strata
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous snag
Tree bole, broad-leaved deciduous cavity user
Artificial structure (e.g. telephone and power poles, chimney, antenna)

Comments on breed-guilding:
Most nests are found on or near the ground in cavities of a preferred size and seclusion. They will nest almost anywhere that provides a suitable cavity *03,04,05,10,12,14,16,22*. Courtship activities being in early spring with much singing to establish and maintain a territory. Singing and calls used as pair-maintenance in thick cover, female makes specific call when attracting male for copulation *14*. Kroodsma (1972) suggests possible polygamy in male of species *13*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Invertebrates Unknown
Arthropoda Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Hemiptera Unknown
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Adult
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Important:
Insecta Unknown
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Adult
Juvenile:
Invertebrates Unknown
Arthropoda Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Hemiptera Unknown
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Adult
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Adult:
Invertebrates Unknown
Arthropoda Unknown
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Hemiptera Unknown
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Adult
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown

Comments on food habits: 
General: Bewick's wrens are insectivores making up 97% of diet. Glean small insects from foliage, limbs, branches and tree trunks as well as the ground. Feed particularly on lepidopteran larve and adults, also eat beetles, bugs, leafhoppers, spiders *03,04,05,11,12,14,17*.
Juvenile: Predominantly feed young lepidopteran larvae and adults less than 2 cm long and presumably various other small insects *00,03,11*.
Adult: See [FH].


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Cliffs/ledges: see comments
  • Tree cavities: cavities in live trees
  • Tree cavities: cavities in dead/dying trees
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Snags: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub canopy ave. ht: unknown
  • Size of continous forested land: unknown
  • Human associations: residential lawn/ornamental trees and shrubs
  • Human associations: houses/chimneys/attics
  • Human associations: barns, sheds
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub canopy ave. Ht: unknown
  • Size of continous forested land: unknown

Resting juvenile:

  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub canopy ave. ht: unknown
  • Size of continous forested land: unknown

Feeding adult:

  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub canopy ave. ht: unknown
  • Size of continous forested land: unknown

Resting adult:

  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub canopy ave. ht: unknown
  • Size of continous forested land: unknown

Breeding adult:

  • Cliffs/ledges: see comments
  • Tree cavities: cavities in dead/dying trees
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Snags: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub canopy ave. ht: unknown
  • Size of continous forested land: unknown
  • Human associations: residential lawn/ornamental trees and shrubs
  • Human associations: houses/chimneys/attics
  • Human associations: barns, sheds

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Bewick's wren is associated with open woodland, thickets, fencerows, orchards, residential areas and other brushy and wooded habitats that provide thick brushy cover and suitable cavity sites *02,03,04, 05,10,12,14,16*. Miller (1941) reports brushy cover provides important shelter and foraging habitat *14*. House wren and other bird competition may also be a limiting factor *02,03,08,10,23*.
Feeding juvenile: Young are cared for by parents about 14 days in nest and about another 2 weeks out of nest. They are fed various small insects, particularly lepidopteran larvae, found in the immediate brushy wooded habitat *03,11,14,17*.
Resting juvenile: No specific information available on resting. Presumably rests in habitat being used *00*.
Feeding adult: Birds feed on or near the ground using various foraging habits for different floral types. Small insects are chiefly gleaned from foliage, from limbs and branches, tree trunks and on the ground *04, 14*.
Resting adult: No information available on resting. Presumably rests in habitat utilized *00*.
Breeding adult: Birds may use any acceptable cavity for nesting, such as crevices of cliffs, birdboxes, ledges, rock walls, artifical cavities around houses, sheds and natural cavities in trees and in brush piles *03,04,05,07,12,14,16,17,18*. Commonly found in thick, mixed brush associations and depend on plants for nesting sites, among other things *14*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01,02*.

Physical description: Overall length 5-5 1/2 inches; wingspread 7-7 1/4 inches. Slender shape, unstreaked brown back, white underparts, long, rounded or fanlike, white-tipped tail that is frequently in motion, flirting from side to side. Conspicuous white stripe over eye. The sexes are similar in appearance *03,04,05*.

Reproduction and behavior: Bewick's wrens are found in Illinois from mid April to late October, though they are an ocasional winter resident in the south and a rare winter resident in central Illinois *01*. The breeding season begins in early spring, usually in April, as males arrive on breeding grounds. First, though pairs may already be formed when birds arrive or in the case of winter residents, territories may be established in late winter - early spring *01,11, 14*. Much singing is done by male in early spring often choosing conspicuous perches, this may attract mates and maintain the territory the pair remains in close association up to nest-building time. They forage in separate locations in the habitat only in early spring, with the male up in the bushes or trees and the female down low, possibly due to smaller amount of food present in territory early in the season *14*. The mated pair use various call notes; the male to maintain territory and keep female aware of his location and the female when she is ready for copulation *14*. Territories may vary in size due to wren numbers and quality of the habitat. Miller (1941) states territory size of approximately 50 yards wide by 100 yards long on side of hill in California. Kroodsma (1973) reports of average territory sizes of 4.9 and 9.4 acres in different locations in Oregon *14,15*. Nesting generally begins in mid-April to mid-May with peak broods noticed in Oregon 17-24 May and the second week in July *11,15*. Birds may use any suitable cavity natural or artificial for nesting. Materials of nest depend on locality, whatever is present of the right size and texture. Both sexes may build the nest, and move than one may be constructed before permanently selecting nest to use. Early nests may take longer to build, others less, one in California noted completed in 11 days *03,04,05,10,12,14,16*. Nests are open on top, made of sticks, leaves, other debris with the inner cup a soft lining of feathers, hair. Clutch sizes may vary from 4-11 with 5-7 most common; eggs white irregularly marked with brown dots, .66 x .50 inches in size *03,04,05,12,14,17,22*. Female probably lays one egg a day; forages with mate who may also feed her and who may feed her on the nest as she incubates *14*. Incubation lasts about 14 days *03,04,05,14*. Young remain in the nest about 14 days, as both parents feed them small insects particularly worms, caterpillars *03,04,05,09,11,14,22*. Kroodsma (1972) study in Oregon stated nesting success following pairing at 62%. He also reports polygamy in Bewick's wren and extrapolates that 7% of males could be bigamists *13*. Laskey (1946) reports that 56.8% of the eggs fledged young in Tennessee *22*. Parents care for and remain with the young an additional two weeks or so after they leave the nest, which yields a nesting cycle of about 58 days *14*. Some mention two broods may be raised; Kroodsma (1973) notes that 2 of 30 males raised two broods *03,15*. Predominantly a ground and shrub strata forager, in wrenlike fashion, gleaning small insects from foliage, limbs, tree trunks; as 97% of diet is insects *03,04,05,09,10,12,14,17*. Information lacking on various reproduction and behavior traits such as minimum and maximum breeding ages, age of sexual maturity, daily and seasonal periodicity, dispersion, migration and dispersal.

Limiting factors: Bewick's wrens are mostly neutral in relation to other vertebrate animals in their habitat. They may face predation by bird-hawks or owls to a slight extent. Nest predation by snake and cat were reported from Laskey (1946) *14,22*. Competition from the house wren is expressed as a limiting factor in Illinois (Bowles, et al., 1981) and by others *01,02,05,07,08,10,23*. However, others suggest tolerance and coexistence among the two species *07,08,09, 15,23*. Simpson (1978) feels the invasion of the starling and the house sparrow, who use similar habitat of suburban and farm settings as the Bewick's wren, along with the subsequent influx of the house wren due to southward range expansion all could have contributed to the Bewick's wren's decline *23*.

Population parameters: Bowles, et al. (1981) States that once a common breeder in central and southern Illinois, the Bewick's wren is now at a low population level and possibly still declining. It is currently on the state's endangered and threatened vertebrate species list *02*. Miller (1941) mentioned sighting single individual males, suggesting sex ratio favors males *14*. Information was unavailable for other population parameters. Little if any current information on the ecology of the Bewick's wren. No current information on its ecology in Illinois. Studies on the reasons for its decline and its general ecology in Illinois seem warranted *00*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining early stage of ecological succession
  • Maintaining natural ecological succession
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining habitat diversity
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining streamside vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining hedge rows/windbreaks
  • Deferring for special management (e.g. for cavities and snags) in forest areas
  • Prescribed burning of forests
  • Developing and maintaining brush or slash piles in forests
  • Leaving dead or downed woody materials in forests
  • Developing/maintaining woodlots
  • Developing/maintaining forest edge
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Constructing nesting structures for birds
  • Estimating/maintaining nesting and escape cover
  • Providing artificial nesting and roosting sites (platforms, nest boxes, cones, baskets, burro
  • Developing/maintaining greenspace (wildlife corridors)
  • Providing brush piles, rock piles, logs and other protective cover

Adverse:

  • Salvage thinning- mortality cuts in forest areas

Comments on management practices:
Bewick's wren use open woodlands, upland thickets, woodlands near streams, orchards, hedgerows, fencerows, about farms, suburbans, small towns; areas generally associated with scrubby, brushy cover. These areas need to provide low, thick undergrowth for shelter and foraging and suitable nesting sites. Various conifers are used in natural or artifical settings *01,02,03,04,05,07,09,10,11,12,14,16,17, 22*. See bowles, et al. (1981) for management suggestions *02*. Studies of the general ecology and reasons for its decline in Illinois would be helpful. Detailed accounts of current habitat use and population numbers in Illinois may also be valuable *00*.

 


REFERENCES

0. PHIPPS, M.A. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 61820. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

2. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 189 P.

3. BENT, A.C. 1948. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN NUTHATCHES, WRENS, THRASHERS AND THEIR ALLIES. U.S. NATL. MUS., BULL. 195:176-183.

4. TERRES, J. 1980. THE AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

5 POUGH, R.H. 1946. AUDUBON BIRD BUIDE, SMALL LAND BIRDS OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA FROM SOUTHERN TEXAS TO CENTRAL GREENLAND DOUBLEDAY AND CO., INC. GARDEN CITY, N.Y. 312 P.

6. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1982. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT AUK 99(3).

7. BROOKS, M. 1947. INTERRELATIONS OF HOUSE WREN AND BEWICK'S WREN. THE AUK 64:624.

8. ROOT, R.B. 1969. INTERSPECIFIC TERRITORIALITY BETWEEN BEWICK'S AND HOUSE WRENS. THE AUK 86:125-127.

9. NEWMAN, D.L. 1961. HOUSE WRENS AND BEWICK'S WRENS IN NORTHERN OHIO. THE WILSON BULL. 73:84-86.

10. SUTTON, G.M. 1930. THE NESTING WRENS OF BROOKE COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA. THE WILSON BULL. 42:10-17.

11. GORTON, R.E. JR. 1977. TERRITORIAL INTERACTIONS IN SYMPATRIC SONG SPARROW AND BEWICK'S WREN POPULATIONS. THE AUK 94:701-708.

12. HARDIN, K.I. AND K.E. EVANS. 1977. CAVITY NESTING BIRD HABITAT IN THE OAK-HICKORY FORESTS - A REVIEW. USDA FOR. SERV. GEN. TECH. REP. NC-30, NORTH CENT. FOR. EXP. STN., ST. PAUL, MINN. 23 P.

13. KROODSMA, D.E. 1972. BIGAMY IN THE BEWICK'S WREN? THE AUK 89:185-187.

14. MILLER, E.V. 1941. BEHAVIOR OF THE BEWICK WREN. THE CONDOR 43:81-99.

15. KROODSMA, D.E. 1973. COEXISTENCE OF BEWICK'S WRENS AND HOUSE WRENS IN OREGON. THE AUK 90:341-352.

16. MENGEL, R. 1965. THE BIRDS OF KENTUCKY. ORNITH. MONOGR. NO. 3. 581 P.

17. SMILEY, D. AND J. STAPLETON. 1976. FIRST BREEDING OF BEWICK'S WREN IN NEW YORK STATE. THE AUK 93:183-184.

18. KLEEN, V.M. 1982. FIELD NOTES, THE [1981] BREEDING SEASON. ILL. AUDUBON BULL. 199:21-39.

19. KLEEN, V.M. 1984. FIELD NOTES, THE [1983] BREEDING SEASON. ILL. AUDUBON BULL. 207:39-45.

20. ILL. DEPT. OF CONSER. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 123 P.

21. U.S. FISH & WILDL. SERV. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPEC. PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SERV. ADMIN. OCT. 1.

22. LASKEY, A.R. 1946. SOME BEWICK WREN NESTING DATA. THE MIGRANT 17: 39-43.

23. SIMPSON, M.B., JR. 1978. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DECLINE OF BEWICK'S WREN AS A BREEDING SPECIES IN THE SOUTHERN BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE. THE CHAT. 42(2):25-28.

 


 

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