Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Bald Eagle
Haliaeetus leucocephalus

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Falconiformes
  • Family: Acciptiridae
  • Genus: Haliaeetus
  • Species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Often recognized as 2 subspecies H. l. leucocephalus (L.) (Southern bald eagle) and H. l. alascanus Townsend (Northern bald eagle) *15,16, 21,23*. N. bald eagle sometimes called H. l. washingtoniensis *16,32*. Northern race tends to be slightly bigger in size than southern race. Controversy over where to divide races by size and geography *15,16*. Previous scientific names - Falco leucocephalus L., F. ossifragus, F. washingtonii, F. washingtonianus, H. washingtoni *01,14,22,24*. Other common names - American, white headed, or sea eagle*01,15*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Winter along Mississippi, Rock, and Illinois Rivers, nest in southern Illinois.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
See appendix 2. Recovery plan is currently in agency review stage.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir

Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Red pine Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old) 41-70% Fall/winter
Easter white pine Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old) 41-70% Fall/winter
River birch-sycamore Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old) 41-70% Fall/winter
Silver maple-American elm Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old) 41-70% Fall/winter
Cottonwood Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old) 41-70% Fall/winter
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old) 41-70% Fall/winter

Associated tree species:

  • Cottonwood

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Forest Deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Lower perennial Forest Deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Bald eagles prefer large, tall trees (avg. 42-66 cm dbh) near rivers or reservoirs (0-1 km) *04,19,25,28,29,31,65*. Prefer trees which have 1 or 2 open edges; ex. riverbank, rangeland, cropland in which they roost or nest in the upper open branches, allowing for easy surveillance for food and accessibility *25,26,29,31*. Large dead or dying trees are also used *26,28,31*. During poor weather and winter nights eagles move to more protected trees making the edge affect less important *25,29,31*. SAF and NWI codes show the importance of mature floodplain trees. The land use classif. describes very basic habitat.

Important plant and animal association: Preys on fish, particularly gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) *04, 06,19*. Often roosts and nests in cottonwood *25,28,29,30,32*. Preys on fish year round* 04,06,19,34*. Also preys on wounded waterfowl during the hunting season *33,35,57*. Roosts and nests in tall trees along rivers and reservoirs *25,28,29,30,32*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Wet-mesic floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All

Species-habitat interrelations: SAF forest cover type (cottonwood) forest class size (mature) season (summer/winter) function (nesting/feeding) value (high) Prefer large, tall, open trees for nesting and roosting because of easy food surveillance and accessibility *25,26,65*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Water surface- fish
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- large mammals (> 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- carrion
Air- birds
Wet-mesic floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Water surface- fish
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- large mammals (> 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- carrion
Air- birds

Comments on feed-guilding:
Prefer fish *06,19,26* but also prey on small mammals, wounded water- fowl, and carrion *37,57,62*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees
Wet-mesic floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees

Comments on breed-guilding:
Choose mature tall trees for nests, often the largest tree in the stand. Nest most often in upper branches of deciduous trees with leaves camouflaging nest. However, also frequently use dead trees. Usually nest near water for food access *16,26,38,65*. Mate for as long as both in pair are alive. Mating takes place before or during nest construction *15,26,37,39*.


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Amiiformes (bowfin) Unknown
Anguilliformes (American eel) Unknown
Clupeiformes (herrings) Juvenile
Clupeiformes (herrings) Adult
Salmoniformes (trouts, salmons, smelts, pikes) Unknown
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Juvenile
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Unknown
Siluriformes (catfishes) Adult
Perciformes (basses, sunfishes, perches, sculpins) Unknown
Testudines (turtles) Unknown
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Unknown
Sciuridae (squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs) Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Unknown
Cervidae (elk, deer, moose) See comments
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) See comments
Galliformes Unknown
Laridae (gulls, terns) Adult
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Adult
Carrion Not applicable
Important:
Clupeiformes (herrings) Juvenile
Clupeiformes (herrings) Adult
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Unknown
Juvenile:
Amiiformes (bowfin) Unknown
Amiiformes (bowfin) Unknown
Anguilliformes (American eel) Unknown
Clupeiformes (herrings) Juvenile
Clupeiformes (herrings) Adult
Salmoniformes (trouts, salmons, smelts, pikes) Unknown
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Juvenile
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Unknown
Siluriformes (catfishes) Adult
Perciformes (basses, sunfishes, perches, sculpins) Unknown
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Unknown
Sciuridae (squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs) Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Unknown
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) See comments
Galliformes Unknown
Laridae (gulls, terns) Adult
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Adult
Carrion Not applicable
Adult:
Amiiformes (bowfin) Unknown
Anguilliformes (American eel) Unknown
Clupeiformes (herrings) Juvenile
Clupeiformes (herrings) Adult
Salmoniformes (trouts, salmons, smelts, pikes) Unknown
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Juvenile
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Unknown
Siluriformes (catfishes) Adult
Perciformes (basses, sunfishes, perches, sculpins) Unknown
Testudines (turtles) Unknown
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Unknown
Sciuridae (squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs) Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Unknown
Cervidae (elk, deer, moose) See comments
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) See comments
Galliformes Unknown
Laridae (gulls, terns) Adult
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Adult
Carrion Not applicable

Comments on food habits: 
General: Fish is the staple food item and preferred when available. Generally prey on small fish which they can swallow whole. Otherwise prey on small mammals, waterfowl (particularly wounded), small birds, and carrion (ex.deer). Young eat the same food as adults *06,19,26,28,57,62*.
Juvenile: Young eat basically the same food as adults which is primarily fish. Adults bring food to young at eeyrie *16,26,34,35,37,38*.
Adult: Fish is the staple food item and preferred when available. Generally prey on small fish which they can swallow whole. Otherwise prey on small mammals, waterfowl (particularily wounded), small birds, chickens, and carrion (ex. deer) *06,19,26,28,62*.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Air temperature:see comments
  • Water temperature: see comments
  • Flow: see comments
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Vegetation mosaics/edges: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Snags: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax forest
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Limiting:

  • Water temperature: see comments
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments

Egg

  • Air temperature:see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments

Feeding juvenile:

  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • Air temperature:see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments

Feeding adult:

  • Water temperature: see comments
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Vegetation mosaics/edges: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Snags: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax forest
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Resting adult:

  • Flow: see comments
  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments

Breeding adult:

  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Bald eagles' preferred food is fish so need open water during the winter to feed *25,27*. Cottonwoods are frequently used as roost and nest trees. The height of the tree, however, is the most important factor and the tallest trees in an area are used *19,25,26,28,29,31*. The average heighth is approximately 22 m and average dbh is 42-66 cm *25,28*. Edges and openings in forests are important for visibility and access *25,31*. Deciduous trees in the winter and dead trees year- round are frequently used for perches for similar reasons *29,31*. During the winter under conditions of severe wind or at night may seek conifers or floodplains surrounded by river bluffs for warmth *19,25,29*.
Egg: Nest in tall trees ex. cottonwood, sycamore, red pine, white pine, dead trees *26,32,37,39*. Eggs are laid in early March to the end of April and incubation is approximately 35 days. Eagles generally use the same nest from year to year and build a new nest on top of the old *15,32,39*. Nest consists of sticks lined with dried grasses, leaves, pine needles, herbs *15,26,32,39*
Feeding juvenile: Young remain in nest for approximately 10-13 weeks *15,35,38*. Although young learn to fly at about 10 weeks, they remain at eyrie for several more weeks and are continued to be fed by adults *32,38*. Nest is in tall trees ex. cottonwood, sycamore, red pine, white pine, dead trees; usually near water for their primary source of food - fish *26,32,37,39,42*. Nest consists of sticks lined with dead grasses, leaves, pine needles, and herbs *15,26,37,39*.
Resting juvenile: Young remain in nest for approximately 10-13 weeks *15,35,38*. Nest is in tall trees ex. cottonwood, sycamore, red pine, white pine, and dead trees *26,32,37,39,42*. Nest consists of sticks lined with dried grasses, leaves, pine needles, and herbs *15,26,32,39*. Night brooding is shared by both sexes and lasts from the natal down stage up to the 2nd plumage, approximately 3-4 weeks. Young are also shielded during conditions of severe weather *32,38*.
Feeding adult: Bald eagles' preferred food is fish so need open water during the winter to feed *25,27*. Cottonwoods are frequently used as roost and nest trees. The height of the tree, however, is the most important factor and the tallest trees in an area are chosen *19,25,26,28,29,31* the average heighth is approximately 22 m and average dbh is 42-66 cm *25,28*. Edges and openings in forests are also important for visibility *25,31*. Deciduous trees during the winter and dead trees year-round are frequently used for similar reasons *29,31*.
Resting adult: Cottonwoods are frequently used as roost trees. The height of the tree, however, is the most important factor and the tallest trees in an area are chosen for perches *19,25,26,28,29,31,34*. The average heighth is approximately 22 m and the average dbh is 42-66 cm *25,28*. Deciduous trees during the winter and dead trees year-round are frequently used for winter perches *29,31*. During the winter may seek confiers or floodplains surrounded by river bluffs for warmth under severe wind or at night *19,25,29,66,67*.
Breeding adult: During the breeding season the bald eagle pair begin building a new nest or adding to their old. Use sticks which they line with materials such as leaves, pine needles, and grass. Build nest in tall tree near water *15,26,32,39*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01,05*.

Physical description: Head, neck, and tail, white; general plumage, dark brown; primaries, black; bill, feet, and iris, yellow; female a little larger than male; female wing approximately 25 in., male wing approximately 23 in.; immature-whole plumage, very dark brown; legs yellow; attains adult plumage gradually, 3-4 years *01,05,15,33*.

Reproduction: Breeding season, february-march *26,38,39*; incubation approximately 35 days *15,21,32,35,39*; sexual maturity 5-6 years of age *21*; lay 2-3 eggs, 2 young/year but often only 1 chick is fledged, 1 clutch/year *15,21,26,32,35*; engage in courtship flights which sometimes consist of the pair locking talons in midair and descending several hundred feet in a series of somersaults *15*.

Behavior: Eagles exhibit territoriality over the immediate vicinity of their nest and perches during nest building, incubation of eggs, and raising of eaglets, tend to use the same nesting site every year *26,34,39*; Northern bald eagles migrate south to open water along rivers and reservoirs, there is some northern movement of southern bald eagles during the summer after the breeding season is over *15,16,26,68*; foraging strategy includes striking at live, dying, or dead fish in water, occasionally pursuing waterfowl in the air (particularly injured birds), and utilizing carrion *21,26*; nest in tall trees, ex. cottonwood, sycamore, dead trees *26,32,37,39*; young spend approximately 10-13 weeks in nest, during this time learn how to fly but continue to stay in or near nest *15,32,42*; generally are eaglets but the stronger one may out compete the other for food *15,16,26*; parental care of young consists of sheltering eaglets from severe weather and cold, guarding from predators, feeding for 10-13 weeks *26,32,34,37,38,39,42*; winter perch site preferences (used for loafing) include dead trees, deciduous trees (ex. cottonwood, sycamore, maple, & bald cypress); and tall trees in particular *19,29,68*; use similar trees during summer during "breaks" from brooding *34*.

Limiting factors: The concentration of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury have been monitored in bald eagle carcasses and eggshells since 1966, nearly all carcasses contained residues of DDE and PCBs but most, although not all, died from other causes, eggshells also exhibited thinning but it is not certain to what extent this is limiting reproductive success, most common cause of death is illegal shooting although this has decreased *21,43,44,45,46,47,48*; spermatogenesis was not found to be affected in males fed a sublethal dose diet of DDT *49*. Trichomoniasis has been recently reported in bald eagles that apparently fed on the parasite's host, rock and mourning doves, treatment with emetryl tablets produced complete recovery *50* habitat loss to agricultural and industrial uses, logging, and recreational utilization of lakes and lakeshores coupled with human disturbance has resulted in a long term decline *21,26,51,69*; loss of nesting sites is particularly critical *26*; Sprunt found low productivity to be due principally to fewer pairs of eagles producing young at a lower rate *26,52*.

Population parameters: The population trend for wintering bald eagles in Illinois fluctuates but is probably fairly stable *58,59,60,61*; there is now limited nesting in southern Illinois *40,41,54*; little is known about longevity or length of sexual activity, a dead bald eagle in the wild was 27 years old and captive bald eagles have lived to be 50 *26*; sex ratio is 1:1 *37*; little is known about mortality and survival rates but Sherrod estimated adult mortality at 5.4% and a collective mortality of subadult birds before breeding age to be 90% *57*. The bald eagle recovery plan summarizes mortality factors *69*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Establishing buffer zones
  • Improving habitat on adjacent areas to increase carrying capacity
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Seasonal restriction of human use of habitats
  • Controlling water levels
  • Navigational improvements such as channelization and locks and dams
  • Drawdown of ponds/lakes
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining streamside vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Contouring to create windbreaks in mine areas
  • Site preparation for revegetation of mined land- establishing noncommercial forest
  • Site preparation for revegetation of mined land- establishing woody wildlife area
  • Shelterwood method of silviculture- seed cut
  • Seed tree method of silviculture- seed cut
  • Selection method of silviculture- group
  • Thinning operations in forest areas
  • Thinning improvement cuts in forest areas
  • Reforestation
  • Developing/maintaining forest openings
  • Burning forest openings
  • Deferring for old growth in forest areas
  • Deferring for special management (e.g. for cavities and snags) in forest areas
  • Modifying forests for age diversity
  • Developing/maintaining woodlots
  • Developing/maintaining forest edge
  • Developing/maintaining mature hardwood forest
  • Prohibiting hunting
  • Providing seasonal supplemental feeding
  • Developing/maintaining water holes, ponds, potholes, etc.
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Maintaining large trees for denning, nesting, or roosting
  • Providing artificial nesting and roosting sites (platforms, nest boxes, cones, baskets, burro
  • Creating wind and snowbreaks for winter wildlife protection
  • Drawdown of ponds/lakes

Adverse:

  • Locating, designing, developing, and constructing roads
  • Locating, designing, and constructing powerlines
  • Providing public access (develop roads, trails, parking areas or provide legal access)
  • Draining ponds/lakes
  • Strip mining
  • Conducting exploratory drillings in mine areas
  • Advance stripping to remove the vegetation and the topsoil in mine areas
  • Constructing surface facilities in mine areas (preparation plant, soil stockpiles, refuse dis
  • Clearcutting forests
  • Shelterwood method of silviculture- removal cut
  • Salvage thinning- mortality cuts in forest areas
  • Salvage thinning- sanitation cuts in forest areas
  • Forest protection- insect pest control
  • Forest protection- disease pest control
  • Removal of old trees
  • Application of insecticides
  • Using noise makers, flashing lights, or other repellants to drive individuals into other area

Existing:

  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Establishing buffer zones
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Thinning operations in forest areas
  • Reforestation
  • Deferring for special management (e.g. for cavities and snags) in forest areas
  • Prohibiting hunting
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Maintaining large trees for denning, nesting, or roosting
  • Providing artificial nesting and roosting sites (platforms, nest boxes, cones, baskets, burro

Comments on management practices:
During the winter, bald eagles in Illinois are found primarily along major rivers. Therefore, beneficial management practices should protect riparian areas known to be frequented by the eagles. Do not remove known roosting trees, snags, or potential roosting trees with diameters exceeding 30 cm within 3 m of riverbank *31*. Buffer zones around roosting and nesting areas are also important with very restricted human activity (150-250 m from eagle area) *31,63*, understory vegetation can help minimize visual disturbances (within 30-50 m along shoreline and other boundary areas) *29,31*. Develop roosting sites for future years either through new plantings or thinning of trees *31*. Timber cutting and other similar activities should not be allowed during the nesting season *26*. Need buffer zone around nesting area (Feb.-June) similar to winter roosting areas *26*. Some of these practices are being used in Illinois. For wintering bald eagles: in Pike Co. land is being acquired. At Keokuk a plan of mitigation is being developed which includes artificial roosts and land acquisition. Trees have been planted to provide a visual barrier and the construction of a bridge was modified so less trees were cut down. In Rock Island certain areas are restricted and trees have been planted to provide perch sites for the future. Every winter there is an extensive ground and air survey conducted for bald eagles. A management plan for wintering bald eagles in Illinois is being prepared. For breeding birds: the nest areas at the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge and Savannah are restricted from human access*41*. At the 1984 midwest workshop on bald eagle research & management, the importance of minimizing human disturbance and protecting bald eagle wintering areas (and efforts of land aquisition) were paricularly emphasized *65,66*. The northern states bald eagle recovery plan was approved in 1983 by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. The primary objective that they established is: to re-establish self-sustaining populations of bald eagles in suitable habitat throughout the northern states region. To achieve this, a goal was set at having 1,200 occupied breeding areas distributed over at least 16 states within the region by the year 2000 with an average annual productivity of at least 1.0 young/occupied nest. The 4 components of the recovery plan designed to achieve this are: 1) determine current population and habi- tat status 2) determine population and habitat levels needed to ac achieve recovery 3) protect, enhance, and increase bald eagle populations and 4) coordinate and conduct recovery efforts *69*.

 


REFERENCES

0. SHERRI SANDBERG 607 E. PEABODY CHAMPAIGN, IL (217)333-6846 ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY

1. RIDGEWAY, R. 1889. THE ORNITHOLOGY OF ILLINOIS DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. NAT. HIST. SURV. ILLINOIS. VOL. 1 ORNITH. 520 PP.

2. GRABER, R. AND J. GOLDEN. 1960. HAWKS AND OWLS: POPULATION TRENDS FROM ILLINOIS CHRISTMAS COUNTS. ILLINOIS NAT. HIST. SURV. BIOL. NOTES. NO. 41. 24 PP.

3. LINCER, J. L., W. S. CLARK, AND M. N. LEFRANC, JR. 1979. WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE BALD EAGLE. NATL. WILDL. FED. SCI. TECH. SER. NO. 2. 219 PP.

4. EUBANK, C. S. JR. 1975. WINTERING POPULATION OF ROOSTING BALD EAGLES AT PERE MARQUETTE STATE PARK. UNPUBL. REPT. 15 PP.

5. CORY, C. B. 1909. THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS AND WISCONSIN. FIELD MUS. NAT. HIST. ZOOL. SER. 9(131):1-766.

6. SOUTHERN, W. E. 1963. WINTER POPULATIONS, BEHAVIOR, AND SEASONAL DISPERSAL OF BALD EAGLES IN NORTHWESTERN ILLINOIS. WILSON BULL. 75(1):42-55.

7. MUSSELMAN, T. E. 1949. CONCENTRATIONS OF BALD EAGLES ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT HAMILTON, ILLINOIS. AUK 66(1):83.

8. HODGES, J. 1959. THE BALD EAGLE IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. IOWA BIRD LIFE 29(4):86-91.

9. BOHLEN, H. D., REG. ED., WISCONSIN, ILLINOIS, AND K. R. ECKERT, REG. ED., IOWA, MINNESOTA, MISSOURI. 1977. 77TH AUDUBON CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNT. AMERICAN BIRDS 31(4):678-692.

10. BOHLEN, H. D., REG. ED., WISONSIN, ILLINOIS, AND K. R. ECKERT, REG. ED., IOWA, MINNISOTA, MISSOURI. 1978. 78TH AUDUBON CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNT. AMERICAN BIRDS 32(4):686-99.

11. BOHLEN, H. D., REG. ED., WISCONSIN, ILLINOIS, AND K. R. ECKERT, REG. ED., IOWA, MINNISOTA, MISSOURI. 1979. 79TH AUDUBON CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNT. AMERICAN BIRDS 33(4):524-533.

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13. BOHLEN, H. D., REG. ED., WISCONSIN, ILLINOIS, AND K. R. ECKERT, REG. ED., IOWA, MINNISOTA, MISSOURI. 1981. 81ST AUDUBON CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNT. AMERICAN BIRDS 35(4):569-579.

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