Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Red-shouldered Hawk
Buteo lineatus

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Falconiformes
  • Family: Accipitridae
  • Genus: Buteo
  • Species: Buteo lineatus
  • Authority: Gmelin

Comments on taxonomy:
Some authorities recognize several subspecies; B.l. lineatus in IL. *02,08*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Once abundant throughout the state, now endangered *05,06,07*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species (F)

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries

Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Oak-hickory Mature
(9" dia. &100 yrs. old)
All (0-100%) All
Oak-hickory Old growth
(trees 100 yrs. old)
All (0-100% All
Oak-gum-cypress Mature
(9" dia. &100 yrs. old)
All (0-100% All
Oak-gum-cypress Old growth
(trees 100 yrs. old)
All (0-100% All
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. &100 yrs. old)
All (0-100% All
Elm-ash-cottonwood Old growth
(trees 100 yrs. old)
All (0-100% All

Associated tree species:

  • Beech
  • Chestnut
  • Maple
  • Oak
  • Cherrybark oak
  • Overcup oak
  • Pin oak
  • Red oak
  • Scarlet oak
  • Swamp white oak
  • White oak
  • Willow oak
  • White pine
  • Sycamore

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine   Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Red-shouldered lives in lowland woods, near water - in swamps, along rivers; also near farmlands, in upland woods and near grasslands *01, 02,06,08,09*.

Important plant and animal association: Large trees are required for nesting *06,09,10,12*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Oak-hickory Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Oak-gum-cypress Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Cropland and pasture Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Other agricultural land Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Deciduous forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Streams and canals Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Forested wetland Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Nonforested wetland Special habitat All
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Upland forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Wetland Special habitat All
Marsh Special habitat All
Swamp Special habitat All
Streams Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Agricultural field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Successional field Special habitat All
Natural community restoration Special habitat All
Orchards, nurseries, arboretums, etc. Special habitat All

Species-habitat interrelations: A lowland forest bird. Nests in large trees in forests with water - swamps, riparian habitat. Also hunts in agricultural areas, grasslands, forest edges. Swamps and bottomland forests are most important habitats *01,03,06,08,09,17,23*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Oak-hickory Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Oak-gum-cypress Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Cropland and pasture Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Other agricultural land Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Deciduous forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Streams and canals Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Forested wetland Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Nonforested wetland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Upland forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Wetland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Marsh Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Swamp Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Streams Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Agricultural field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Successional field Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Natural community restoration Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)
Orchards,nurseries, arboretums, etc. Special habitat All Terrestrial surface - arthropods
Terrestrial surface - invertebrates other than arthropods
Terrestrial surface - amphibians
Terrestrial surface - reptiles
Terrestrial surface - birds
Terrestrial surface - small mammals (< 1 kg)

Comments on feed-guilding:
See comments under food habits.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Oak-hickory Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Oak-gum-cypress Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Swamp Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Successional field Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Deciduous forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Forested wetland Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees

Comments on breed-guilding:
Nests in large trees *06,08,09*. Tree species seems unimportant *06,08*; size and structure are *08,09,23*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Adult
Arthropoda Larva
Arthropoda Adult
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Insecta Larva
Insecta Adult
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Adult
Caudata (salamanders, newts, mudpuppies, sirens, hellbenders) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Reptiles Adult
Testudines (turtles) Adult
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Adult
Serpentes (snakes) Adult
Mammals Adult
Didelphidae (opossum) Adult
Soricidae (shrews) Adult
Talpidae (moles) Adult
Talpidae (moles) Adult
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Adult
Sciuridae (squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs) Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Adult
Muridae (Norway rat, house mouse) Adult
Birds Adult
Rallidae (rails, coots) Adult
Passeriformes Adult
Important:
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Adult
Muridae (Norway rat, house mouse) Adult
Birds Adult
Juvenile:
Arthropoda Larva
Arthropoda Adult
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Insecta Larva
Insecta Adult
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Adult
Caudata (salamanders, newts, mudpuppies, sirens, hellbenders) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Reptiles Adult
Testudines (turtles) Adult
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Adult
Serpentes (snakes) Adult
Mammals Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Adult
Muridae (Norway rat, house mouse) Adult
Birds Adult
Rallidae (rails, coots) Adult
Passeriformes Adult
Adult:
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Adult
Arthropoda Larva
Arthropoda Adult
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Adult
Insecta Larva
Insecta Adult
Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Adult
Caudata (salamanders, newts, mudpuppies, sirens, hellbenders) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Reptiles Adult
Testudines (turtles) Adult
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Adult
Serpentes (snakes) Adult
Mammals Adult
Didelphidae (opossum) Adult
Soricidae (shrews) Adult
Talpidae (moles) Adult
Talpidae (moles) Adult
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Adult
Sciuridae (squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs) Adult
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrats) Adult
Muridae (Norway rat, house mouse) Adult
Birds Adult
Rallidae (rails, coots) Adult
Passeriformes Adult

Comments on food habits: 
General: Diet is extremely varied and its composition apparently depends in part upon spp. availability. Small mammals and amphibians make up a large portion of diet *01,22,24*.
Juvenile: Juveniles seem to eat same diet as adults. The parents tear prey into pieces for young nestlings *12*.
Adult: No comments.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: woodland/crop fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/old fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: woodland/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: see comments
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Ecotones: woodland/crop fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/old fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: woodland/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Ecotones: woodland/crop fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/old fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: woodland/grassland
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: see comments

Feeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: woodland/crop fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/old fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: woodland/grassland
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: see comments

Resting adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Ecotones: woodland/crop fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/old fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: woodland/grassland
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: see comments

Breeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Ecotones: woodland/crop fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/old fields
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: woodland/grassland
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. ht: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Large lone trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: See comments on species-habitat associations, comments on management practices.
Feeding juvenile: See same comments sections and comments on juvenile food habits.
Resting juvenile: See same comments sections.
Feeding adult: Uses old nests as "feeding platforms" *01*.
Resting adult: No comments
Breeding adult: See comments on management practices and reproduction in life history.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *05,06,07*.

Physical description: Dark back, dark wings with translucent patch near primaries and rufous "shoulders"; tail black with narrow white bars; underside pale red *01,02,03,04*. Length 17-24 in., wingspread 32-50 in. *01*. Ave. weight male 550 gm., female 700 gm. *14*.

Reproduction: Courtship begins in Feb.-Mar., during which pairs are noisy, calling much (call may be imitated by blue jays) and soaring, high in circles. Most calling and soaring is limited to courtship time *02,08*. Pairs perhaps mate for life, and may return (as well as their offspring) to the same woods to breed *01,02,08*. Nest building (or repairing old ones - pairs may return to same nest) begin in Mar., taking as long as 4-5 wk. *02*. Nests are large, sturdily constructed of sticks, bark, leaves and mosses, lined with softer material *08*. Nests are bult in large trees against the trunk in the crotch of large branch, 20-60 ft. high *01,08,09*. In Mar.-Apr. *10,11* 2-6 (usu. 3-4) eggs are laid at 2-3 day intervals *01,11,12,13,14*. Eggs may be white, or white with patterns *08*. Both sexes incubate about 28 days *01,02*. Chicks born with white down, juvenal plumage beginning in about 2 wk. *08*. Fledge at about 42 days, with 8-10 wk. Post-fledging period when young are still in some degree guarded and fed by parents *08,15*. Young breed in second yr. *10*.

Behavior: Seasonal ranges and territories smaller than many Buteos. Daily winter range about 0.5 mi., total winter range 1.5-2.0 mi., encompassing 0.5-2.0 sq. mi. *13*. In nesting seasons, distances between nests in river floodplains (inversely proportional to floodplain width) was 0.67-1.34 mi.; Nesting range ave. less than 0.25 sq. mi. *02*. Summer and winter ranges in IL in deciduous lowland forest, near standing water *06*. Red-shouldered hunts on wing or from perches, over forests, grasslands and marshes *08,17*. Migratory, summer resident and migrant in north and central IL, permanent resident in south *01,06*. Red-shouldered and red-tailed hawks are natural enemies; feeding and nesting territories don't overlap *02, 08,15*. Barred owl and red-shouldered share nesting habitat with no apparent conflict *08,16*.

Limiting factors: Modification of nesting habitat by man is likely the most important factor in the decline of red-shouldered populations *06*. Eggshell thinning from DDT had no significant effect on productivity in eastern U.S. study *19*. Man is responsible for most nest failures. Great horned owl is a nest predator *08,10,13*. Single largest cause of adult mortality is man *08*.

Population parameters: Once abundant, now becoming rare *05*.

Productivity parameters: 68% Successful (at least one fledging) nests *11*, 2.07 hatchlings/nest *10*, 1.34-2.56 fledgings/nest *09,10,11, 13*. First yr. mortality 58%; mean expectation of further life after first yr. 1.2 Yr. After first yr., 31% mortality, 2.7 yrs. mean additional expectation *18*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural ecological succession
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining habitat diversity
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Practices other than those included on the ifwis list (see comments)
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Creating/maintaining wetlands from non-wetlands
  • Protecting existing wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining streamside vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Revegetating streambanks using grass-forb-sedge-tree mixtures
  • Site preparation for revegetation of mined land- establishing commercial forest
  • Site preparation for revegetation of mined land- establishing noncommercial forest
  • Site preparation for revegetation of mined land- establishing woody wildlife area
  • Deferred cutting of forest areas
  • Deferring for old growth in forest areas
  • Deferring for special management (e.g. for cavities and snags) in forest areas
  • Developing/maintaining forest edge
  • Developing/maintaining mature hardwood forest
  • Removal of old trees
  • Maintaining forests

Adverse:

  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Locating, designing, developing, and constructing roads
  • Draining wetlands
  • Removing bank vegetation
  • Applying pesticide on agricultural land
  • Applying insecticide
  • Strip mining
  • Cutting and deforestation
  • Clearcutting forests
  • Shelterwood method of silviculture
  • Thinning operations in forest areas
  • Thinning improvement cuts in forest areas

Comments on management practices:
See "limiting factors" in life history. "Management recommendations... habitat acquisition and preservation" *09*; protection/preservation of lowland forests, and in particular large trees suitable for nesting is recommended *06,09*. Other forests parameters for management consideration include: forested area size and proximity to wetland foraging sites- minimum 100 ha. And perhaps .5 km.; forest age and productivity - old growth with high basal area values; large nesting site trees - 27 m. tall and 57 cm. D.B.H., average in one study (*09*) *09,23*. MBTA and Illinois Wildlife Code, 1971 *25*, are current management practices *20*.

 


REFERENCES

0. BUTCHER, M.K. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. (217)333-6846.

1. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

2. BROWN, L. AND D. AMADON. 1968. EAGLES, HAWKS AND FALCONS OF THE WORLD, VOL. 2. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., NEW YORK. P. 445 TO 945.

3. PETERSON, R. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS. 4 ED. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 384 P.

4. ROBBINS, C., B. BRUUN AND H. ZIM. 1966. BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA. GOLDEN PRESS, NEW YORK. 340 P.

5. BOHLEN, H. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

6. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 189 P.

7. RIDGEWAY, R. 1889. THE ORNITHOLOGY OF ILLINOIS, VOL. 1. ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY, SPRINGFIELD, 520 P.

8. BENT, A.C. 1937. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS OF PREY (PART 1). U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 167.

9. KIMMEL, V.L. AND L.H. FREDRICKSON. 1981. NESTING ECOLOGY OF THE RED- SHOULDERED HAWK IN SOUTHEASTERN MISSOURI. TRANS. MISSOURI ACAD. SCI. 15:21-27.

10. WILEY, J.W. 1975. THE NESTING AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF RED-TAILED HAWKS AND RED-SHOULDERED HAWKS IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, 1973. CONDOR 77(2):133-139.

11. HENNY, C.J., F.C. SCHMID. E.M. MARTIN AND L.L. HOOD. 1973. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR, PESTICIDES, AND THE POPULATION ECOLOGY OF RED-SHOULDERED HAWKS IN CENTRAL MARYLAND. ECOLOGY. 54(3):545-554.

12. PORTNOY, J.W. AND W.E. DODGE. 1979. RED-SHOULDERED HAWK NESTING ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. WILSON BULL. 91(1):104-117.

13. CRAIGHEAD, J.J. AND F.C. CRAIGHEAD, JR. 1956. HAWKS, OWLS AND WILDLIFE. STACKPOLE CO., HARRISBURG, PA. 443 P.

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17. HERRICKS, E., D. TAZIK, J. KARR AND M. LEARY. 1980. PLANNING FOR FISH AND WILDLIFE ON ILLINOIS COAL SURFACE MINES. U.S. FISH AND WILDL. BIOL. SERV. PROG. FWS/OBS-80/36. 579 P.

18. HENNY, C.J. 1972. AN ANALYSIS OF THE POPULATION, DYNAMICS OF SELECTED AVIAN SPECIES. BUREAU OF SPORT FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE, RES. REP. 1. WASHINGTON, D.C., GOVT. PRINTER. 89 P. IN:NEWTON, I. 1979. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF RAPTORS. BUTEO BOOKS, VERMILLION, S.D. 399 P.

19. HENNY, C.J. AND H.M. WIGHT. 1972. RED-TAILED AND COOPER'S HAWKS: THEIR POPULATION ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. PP. 229-50 IN "POPULATION ECOLOGY OF MIGRATORY BIRDS," SYMPOSIUM VOLUME, PAXUTENT WILDLIFE RESEARCH CENTER. IN NEWTON, I. 1979. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF RAPTORS. BUTEO BOOKS, VERMILLION, S.D. 399 P.

20. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP 11-18. 50CFR10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SER- VICES ADMIN. OCTOBER 1.

21. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1982. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT AUK 99(3).

22. FISHER, A.K. 1893. THE HAWKS AND OWLS OF THE UNITED STATES IN THEIR RELATION TO AGRICULTURE. USDA, DIV. ORNITH. AND MAMMAL. BULL. NO. 3. 210 P.

23. TITUS, K. AND J.A. MOSHER. 1981. NEST-SITE HABITAT SELECTED BY WOODLAND HAWKS IN THE CENTRAL APPALACHIANS. AUK 98(2):270-281.

24. ERNST, S.G. 1945. THE FOOD OF THE RED-SHOULDERED HAWK IN NEW YORK STATE. AUK 62:452-453.

25. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH 61. WILDLIFE . ART II PAR 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 P.

 


 

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