Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Peregrine falcon
Falco peregrinus

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Falconiformes
  • Family: Falconidae
  • Genus: Falco
  • Species: Falco peregrinus
  • Authority: Tunstall

Comments on taxonomy:
Other common names are duck hawk and great-footed hawk *05,25,34*; only subspecies in eastern U.S. is F. peregrinus anatum Bonaparte *01, 15,26,29*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Last known breeding pair in Jackson Co.(1951) *06,31*; Extinct as breeding species in eastern U.S. since 1964*16*; often sighted in fall migration near Mississippi R. And Lk. Michigan*22,23,24*. Two potential unassassed eyries in Jackson and Wabash Counties *34*. Known to stop over and perhaps winter in Shawnee National Forest *34*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
Early April- mid May: early Sept.- Nov. Occasional migrant along Lake Michigan and rare migrant in remainder of state *06*. Original eastern breeding population now extinct *34*. No evidence of breeding pairs in the eastern U.S. after 1975 *16*. Recovery plan published in 1979. The peregrine falcon is protected under Illinois Endangered Species Act, 1972 *35*, Federal Endangered Species Act, 1977*34*, Illinois Wildlife Code 1971 *37*, and Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 1918 *36*, for other legal protection see *34*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir

Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Unknown Spring
Elm-ash-cottonwood Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Unknown Fall
Elm-ash-cottonwood Old growth
(trees over 100 yrs. old)
Unknown Spring
Elm-ash-cottonwood Old growth
(trees over 100 yrs. old)
Unknown Fall

Associated tree species: No records.

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Forest Broad-leaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Persistent Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Forest Broad-leaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Unknown perennial Forest Broad-leaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Historical nesting sites were in the bluffs of the Mississippi R. *6,16*; migrants most commonly seen along the Mississippi R. and Lk. Michigan *06*. The peregrine nests mostly on rock cliffs, bluffs and vertical escarpments. Also river gorges and watergaps with precipitous cliffs are preferred. Tree sites and city buildings may also be used *34*. The peregrine hunts over waterways, wetland areas such as swamps or marshes and open fields *34*.

Important plant and animal association: No comments.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Fall
Wetland Special habitat Spring
Wetland Special habitat Fall
Lake Michigan Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring
Lake Michigan Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Large river Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring
Large river Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Cliff Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Spring
Cliff Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
Fall
Marsh restoration Special habitat Spring
Marsh restoration Special habitat Fall

Species-habitat interrelations: Peregrines may be found near rocky crags, ledges, bluffs, forested regions, open country, grasslands or scrub land *09,34*. Gigantic trees were used as nesting sites in 1800's, no such trees exist today *29*; recently, cliffs were most important nesting sites *02,03,19*; essential is a commanding view of surrounding area, migratory peregrines are most abundant along Lk. Michigan shores *06*. Habitat types used by migrating peregrines are essentially waterways, wetland areas such as swamps and marshes, open fields and woodland types found along edges of these areas. The best areas have combinations of these habitat types *34*. Peregrines require large expanses of land over which they can capture bird prey in flight *34*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:Air- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Water surface- birds

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Agricultural field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Air- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Water surface- birds
Successional field Special habitat All  
Lakes and ponds Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Air- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Water surface- birds
Wetland Special habitat All Air- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Water surface- birds
Large river Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Air- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Water surface- birds

Comments on feed-guilding:
Peregrines feed almost exclusively on birds, taken on the wing *05,21*. Open space above hunting area important to allow aerial capture. Hunting takes place over waterways, wetlands and open fields *34*. Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Cliff Not applicable
Spring Terrestrial surface, cliff on ledge near top

Comments on breed-guilding:
Cliff ledges are the foci of many courtship and breeding behaviors, and preferred nesting sites *10*. Also may nest in trees and large buildings in metropolitan areas *34*.


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Birds Adult
Ardeidae (herons, bitterns) All
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) All
Accipitridae (kites, hawks, eagles) Unknown
Falconidae (kestrels, falcons) Unknown
Charadriidae (plovers) Unknown
Scolopacidae (curlews, sandpipers, snipes) All
Laridae (gulls, terns) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) Adult
Passeriformes All
Hirundinidae (martins, swallows) All
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) All
Mimidae (mockingbirds, thrashers) All
Muscicapidae (old world warblers & flycatchers, gnatcatchers) All
Sturnidae (starlings) All
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) All
Cardinalinae (cardinals, buntings) All
Icterinae (blackbirds, orioles, meadowlarks) All
Important:
Birds Adult
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) All
Charadriidae (plovers) Unknown
Scolopacidae (curlews, sandpipers, snipes) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) Adult
Juvenile:
Birds Adult
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) All
Charadriidae (plovers) Unknown
Scolopacidae (curlews, sandpipers, snipes) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) All
Adult:
Birds Adult
Ardeidae (herons, bitterns) All
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) All
Accipitridae (kites, hawks, eagles) Unknown
Falconidae (kestrels, falcons) Unknown
Charadriidae (plovers) Unknown
Scolopacidae (curlews, sandpipers, snipes) All
Laridae (gulls, terns) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) All
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) Adult
Passeriformes All
Hirundinidae (martins, swallows) All
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) All
Mimidae (mockingbirds, thrashers) All
Muscicapidae (old world warblers & flycatchers, gnatcatchers) All
Sturnidae (starlings) All
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) All
Cardinalinae (cardinals, buntings) All
Icterinae (blackbirds, orioles, meadowlarks) All

Comments on food habits: 
General: Birds constitute nearly all of the peregrines diet; where avail- able, pigeons are preferred prey*21,25,28* waterfowl and shorebirds are especially important on wintering grounds *34*. Near metropolitan areas starlings and rock doves are important prey *34*.
Juvenile: Parents tear prey birds into pieces for hatchlings*28*. Food items are those eaten by adults.
Adult: See general food habits.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Cliffs/ledges: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Human associations: see comments
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Cliffs/ledges: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Human associations: see comments

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Cliffs/ledges: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water

Feeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: mud flats
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments

Resting adult:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water

Breeding adult:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Cliffs/ledges: see comments
  • Ecotones: woodland/water

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Historically, peregrines bred along large (Mississippi R.) rivers and lakes (Lk. Michigan)*02,03,06*; peregrines most often nest in cliffs*19,21*; human encroachment is generally deleterious, however, peregrines have nested on occuppied buildings*15,18*.
Feeding juvenile: Nestlings are fed in nest. Accompany parents on hunting trip or to plucking post when fledged *09*.
Resting juvenile: Juveniles remain on nest ledge for 5-6 weeks *14*. Assume to adopt adult resting habits.
Feeding adult: Hunting occurs over waterways, wetlands, and open fields *34*. Pere- grines require large expanses of open space in which to capture prey in flight. Often soar after feeding *34*.
Resting adult: Adults roost on rocks or trees with a preference for rocks or even small trees growing out of rocks especially if there are dead branches to use as perches *34*.
Breeding adult: Breeding behavior is centered around nesting ledges *05,10,14,28*. Are also known to breed in trees or buildings in metropolitan areas *09,34*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *34,35*.

Physical description: 5 inches in length, 40 inches wingspan *09,27*; 639 gm male, 1007 gm female/average weight *09*; blue-gray or slate back, light breast *09,27*.

Reproduction: The male arrives first at breeding site (February) and goes through a series of acrobatic displays to attract a mate *34*. Courtship in peregrines includes these displays and nest site selection *05,14*. In the eastern U.S., pairs were on their breeding grounds and had re-established territories by march *34*. Peregrines will return to the same area year after year *09,34*. Peregrines also mate for life but a mate will be replaced if dies *09*. Courtship feeding occurs in peregrines and the male presents food to the female with a bowing ceremony *09*. It is unclear which sex chooses nest site. Nest usually located on rock ledge, bluffs of vertical escarp- ment. No nest is construced *09*. Peregrines may appropriate old nests of buzzards, ravens or eagles *09*. Mating takes place on ledges or cliff tops, sometimes on tree branches *09*. 3-4 Eggs (2-5) are laid in late March or April *05,14,19,21*. A second clutch will often be laid if first is destroyed. *05,14,19,28*. Eggs are cream or buff with many red and red-brown markings *09*. Eggs are laid at 2-3 day inter- vals *09*. Incubation begins with second or third egg as a rule; done mostly by female though male if known to assist. Male brings food to female while incubating *09*. Incubation lasts approx. 28-29 days for each egg (approx. 33 days) *09,34*. Hatchlings are altricial. Male supplies food and female feeds young, though male will feed if female absent *09*. Young fly at 35-42 days after hatching. After fledging juveniles remain in vicinity and dependent on parents for approx. 2 months *09*. Hatching success in wild is approx. at 75 % with an average of 1 young fledging per laying pair *34*. Brown and Amadon (19662) report 2 or less young per year per breeding pair *09*. All pairs may not breed in particular years *09*. Sexual maturity is attained at 3 years of age *14,28,34*.

Behavior: Peregrines are territorial species that return to the same vicinity in successive years. Exact estimates of territory size is known to vary depending on availability of suitable nesting sites and prey availability *34*. Total ranges may vary from 1/4 - 240 mi.; ave. in Britain is 20.1 square miles *34*. The territory immediately surrounding a nest site is constantly and vigorously defended. The female is more aggressive than male *09*. Peregrines are excellent flyers and have been recorded at speeds of approx. 275 mph. (Stoop). Peregrines hunt food in the air and rarely on the ground. This species does not necessarily depend on speed to catch prey but manueverability and surprise also aid these falcons in hunting *34*. Open space above and around hunting areas is important for the peregrines hunting style *34*. The original eastern population of peregrines were either weakly migratory or non-migratory *34*. The stock from which the introduced peregrines were derived is migratory. It is not yet known whether introduced birds will migrate. See *34*.

Limiting factors: Chemical pesticides, chlorinated hydrocarbons and specifically DDT and DDE are responsible for eggshell thinning and resulted in the demise of the eastern peregrine population beginning in 1946 *34*. The pesticide problem is not local but perhaps global. Even though DDT has been banned in the U.S., its use in Mexico, Central and South American countries presents a serious hazard to peregrines throughout the western hemisphere *34*. Indiscriminate shooting was reported to be the greatest factor contributing to adult mortality *34*. Egg collecting, natural predators, desease, falconers, and human disturbance at the nest site and during the nesting period are also contributing factors to annual loss of eggs and young *34*. There is no evidence that natural predation is a limiting factor. Enemies include the great horned owl (most adverse), racoon, gray fox, bobcat, striped skunk, oppossum, and black snake *34*.

Population parameters: The original eastern breeding population is now extinct. As of 1975 no breeding pairs occurred in the eastern U.S.*16* The recovery plan for peregrine falcons approved in 1979 assumes a first year mortality rate of 66.7% and 20% mortality thereafter. Also that 50% of breeding age birds nest successfully and 2.0 young per successful pair are produced with a sex ratio of 1:1 *34*. Because of dealing with an extirpated population and lack captive stock, the pro- posed introductions will be derived from parental stock described in *34*. p.30. The recovery plan estimates that over a 15 yr. period from 1980-1995, 2550 young captive-produced peregrines might have to be re- leased in order to establish 92 successful breeding pairs in the wild. Peregrines may live 12 yrs. in the wild, perhaps more in captivity. Average lifespan is approx. 2-3 yrs. *09*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Seasonal restriction of human use of habitats
  • Controlling pollution
  • Developing/maintaining snags
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Creating/maintaining wetlands from non-wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining mudflats
  • Protecting existing wetlands
  • Restoration of wetlands (return flooded or drained areas to previous wetland conditions)
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Forest protection
  • Deferring for old growth in forest areas
  • Maintaining forests
  • Providing protection from predators
  • Providing food and cover for associated species
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Estimating/maintaining nesting and escape cover
  • Maintaining large trees for denning, nesting, or roosting
  • Providing artificial nesting and roosting sites (platforms, nest boxes, cones, baskets, burro
  • Maintaining undisturbed resting areas for migrating birds
  • Providing ledges on highwalls of surface mines
  • Stocking captive-reared wild strain animals

Adverse:

  • Providing wildlife user trails
  • Locating, designing, developing, and constructing roads
  • Locating, designing, and constructing powerlines
  • Recreational development
  • Draining wetlands
  • Applying pesticide on agricultural land
  • Strip mining
  • Applying pesticides
  • Cutting and deforestation
  • Removal of old trees
  • Application of pesticides
  • Application of insecticides

Comments on management practices:
Extirpation in Illinois was primarily due to pesticide (especially DDT) accumulations, causing catastrophic decline in hatching success *11,12*; the principal goals of the peregrine falcon recovery plan are; 1) preservation and management of essential nesting, wintering, and migration habitat, 2) captive propagation of peregrine and release of these birds into the wild, 3) protection of peregrines through law enforcement, elimination of environmental pollutants that adversely affect peregrines and 4) promotion of public support and understanding through a good education-information program *34*. Recovery can only proceed if there are adequate laws and strict enforcement protecting the birds from being killed or disturbed throughout their life cycle. The following are suggested: provide for additional habitat for prey base and open space to hunt prey, provide protection from predators, limit human disturbance, provide perch pole at or in vicinity of nest site, provide adequate feeding ledges and control access to site. The global pesticide problem must also be addressed. For more details on the recovery plan and management see *34*. The priority area for the recovery plan is the N.E. U.S.. No release sites have been proposed for Illinois, but are proposed for Wisconsin and Minnesota *34*. The U.S. Forest service, however, hopes to establish 2 breeding pairs in the Shawnee National Forest by the year 2020. (Proposed land and resource management plan, USFS, Shawnee National Forest, 1985).

 


REFERENCES

0. MATTHEW BUTCHER 607 E. PEABODY CHAMPAIGN ILLINOIS 333-0954 ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY

1. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGIST'S UNION. 1957. CHECKLIST OF NORTH AMERI- CAN BIRDS. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGIST'S UNION, BALTIMORE. 691 P.

2. AUDUBON FIELD NOTES. 1951. THE NESTING SEASON. 5(5):292.

3. AUDUBON FIELD NOTES. 1950. THE NESTING SEASON. 4(5):278.

4. FRY, V. 1952. WILD BIRDS IN THE CITY. AUDUBON MAG. 54:82-85.

5. BENT, A.C. 1938. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS OF PREY. PT.2. U.S. NAT. MUS. BULL. NO.170. 482 P.

6. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLI- NOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POPULAR SCI. SER., 9:1-156.

7. BOND, R.M. 1946. THE PEREGRINE POPULATION OF WESTERN NORTH AMERI- CA. CONDOR 48(3):101-116.

9. BROWN, L. AND D. AMADON. 1968. EAGLES, HAWKS AND FALCONS OF THE WORLD. VOL 2. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO. NEW YORK.945 PP.

10. CADE, T. 1960. ECOLOGY OF PEREGRINE AND GYRFALCON POPULATIONS IN ALASKA. UNIV. CALIFORNIA PUBL. ZOOL. 63(3):151-290.

11. CADE, T. AND R. FYFE. 1970. THE NORTH AMERICAN PEREGRINE SURVEY, 1970. CAN. FIELD-NAT. 84(3):231-245.

12. CADE, T., C. WHITE, AND J. HAUGH. 1968. PEREGRINES AND PESTICIDES IN ALASKA. CONDOR 70(2):170-178.

13. ENDERSON, J. 1969. PEREGRINE AND PRAIRE FALCON LIFE TABLES BASED ON BAND-RECOVERY DATA. PP.505-509 IN J. HICKEY, ED. PEREGRINE FALCON POPULATIONS: THEIR BIOLOGY AND DECLINE. UNIV. WISCONSIN

14. EVANS, D. 1982. STATUS REPORT ON TWELVE RAPTORS. U.S. FISH WILDL. SERV. SPEC. SCI. REP. WILDL. NO. 238. 68 PP.

15. FINNLEY, D. 1980. THE INCREDIBLE PEREGRINE- ON THE REBOUND? ILLINOIS AUD. BULL. 195:2-8.

16. FYFE, R., S. TEMPLE, AND T. CADE. 1976. THE 1975 NORTH AMERICAN PEREGRINE FALCON SURVEY. CAN. FIELD-NAT. 90(3):228-273.

17. HARRIS, J. 1979. THE PEREGRINE FALCON IN GREENLAND: OBSERVING AN ENDANGERED SPECIES. UNIV. OF MISSOURI PRESS. COLUMBIA AND LONDON. 255 PP.

18. HERBERT, R. AND K. HERBERT. 1965. BEHAVIOUR OF PEREGRINE FALCONS IN THE NEW YORK CITY REGIONS. AUK 82(1): 94.

19. HICKEY, J. 1942. EASTERN POPULATIONS OF THE DUCK HAWK. AUK 59: 176-204.

20. HICKEY, J. 1969. PEREGRINE FALCON POPULATIONS THEIR BIOLOGY AND DECLINE. UNIV. WISCONSION PRESS, MADISON. 596 PP.

21. HICKEY, J. AND D. ANDERSON. 1969. THE PEREGRINE FALCON: LIFE HISTORY AND POPULATION LITERATURE. PP. 3-42 IN J. HICKEY, ED. PEREGRINE FALCON POPULATIONS: THEIR BIOLOGY AND DECLINE. UNIV. WISCONSIN PRESS, MADISON. 596. PP.

22. KLEEN, V. 1978. FIELD NOTES, 1977 FALL MIGRATION. ILLINOIS AUD. BULL. 184:40-51.

23. KLEEN, V. 1980. FIELD NOTES, 1979 FALL MIGRATION. ILLINOIS AUD. BULL. 192:24-36.

24. KLEEN, V. 1981. FIELD NOTES: FALL MIGRATION. ILLINOIS AUD. BULL. 196:36-52.

25. MAY, J. 1935. THE HAWKS OF NORTH AMERICA. NATIONAL ASSOC. OF AUD. SOC., NEW YORK. 140 PP.

26. PETERS, J. 1931. CHECK-LIST OF BIRDS OF THE WORLD. VOL. 1. HARVARD UNIV. PRESS, CAMBRIDGE. 345 PP.

27. PETERSON, R.*1947. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS, GIVING FIELD MARKS OF ALL SPECIES FOUND EAST OF THE ROCKIES. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 290 PP.

28. RATCLIFFE, D. 1980. THE PEREGRINE FALCON. BUTEO BOOKS, VER- MILLION,SD. 416 PP.

29. RIDGEWAY, R. 1889. THE ORNITHOLOGY OF ILLINOIS. VOL.1. PANTA- GRAPH PRINTING AND STATIONERY CO., BLOOMINTON, IL., 1913. 520 PP.

30. RISEBROUGH, R., G. FLORANT, AND D. BERGER. 1970. ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS IN PEREGRINES AND MERLINS MIGRATING THROUGH WISCONSIN. CAN. FIELD-NAT. 84(3):247-253.

31. SMITH, H. AND P. PARMALEE. 1955. A DISTRIBUTIONAL CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER. 4:1-62.

32. TRAINER, D. 1969. DISEASES IN RAPTORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERA- TURE. PP. 425-433 IN J. HICKEY, ED. PEREGRINE FALCON POPULA- TIONS: THEIR BIOLOGY AND DECLINE. UNIV. WISCONSIN PRESS, MADISON. 33. TUNSTALL. 1771. ORN. BRIT., EX PENNANT, BRIT. ZOOL. 1:136.

34. EASTERN PEREGRINE FALCON RECOVERY TEAM. 1979. EASTERN PEREGRINE FAL- CON RECOVERY PLAN. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, MAY 1979. 147 PP.

35. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 189 P.

36. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP. 11-18. 50CFR10.13. LIST OF MAGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SER- VICES ADMIN. OCTOBER 1.

37. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 P.

 


 

Next ---- Previous



Illinois Natural History Survey

1816 South Oak Street, MC 652
Champaign, IL 61820
217-333-6880
cms@inhs.illinois.edu

Terms of use. Email the Web Administrator with questions or comments.

© 2019 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.
For permissions information, contact the Illinois Natural History Survey.

Staff Intranet
Login