Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Loggerhead shrike
Lanius ludovicianus

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Laniidae
  • Genus: Lanius
  • Species: Lanius ludovicianus
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Local names include butcherbird and French mockingbird *02*. for other common names see *07*. principal subspecies collected in Illinois; L.i. migrans *01*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Recorded in regions of state in all seasons, however, decline after 1900. Sharp decline between 1957-1965 *01*. What's left is south of the latitude of Pike and Cumberland Counties. Rare in north and central regions. Common permanent resident in south. Uncommon migrant, occassional summer resident and rare winter resident in central and northern Ill. *03,06*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species (F)

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
Reasons for decline not clear *06*. Species protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 and by the Illinois Wildlife Code of 1971 *18, 19*. Also protected by the Ill. Endangered Species Protection Act of 1972 *06*. L.i. migrans is currently being considered for federal listing under category 2, federal register, vol. 47, 1982 *25*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen

Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Eastern redcedar Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
0-40% All
Oak-hickory Unknown 0-40% All

Associated tree species:

  • Red cedar
  • Elm
  • Hawthorn
  • Oak
  • Osage orange
  • Sassafras

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Unstocked, open areas with mixed shrub/brush hedgerows and scattered thorny trees *01,03,05,06,07,16*. Occurrences in towns have been reported *02,04*. Common in non-row crops such as wheat or hayfields *05,06*. A few exceptions have occurred where nesting has taken place in oaks *01,08*. Nesting done in smaller trees and shrubs with heavily twigged growth *02*.

Important plant and animal association: Thorny plant species: osage orange, honey locus, multiflora rose, wild crabapple. Lack of abundant shelter make these species important *01*. Thorny trees important for impaling *06,14*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Cropland and pasture Special habitat All
Grassland/forest combination- oak savanna All All
Savanna Shrub-seedling
(trees 1" dia.)
All
Cropland Special habitat All
Forageland Special habitat All
Abandoned cropland Special habitat All
Abandoned forageland Special habitat All

Species-habitat interrelations: Type of habitat (open areas with shrub/brush and scattered thorny plant species) function (breed/feed) value (high) season (all). Species may be found in state all year round *01,03*. Hedgerows & thorny species in open areas often mentioned *01,06,07,11,14,16*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Grassland/forest combination- oak savanna All All Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Shrub strata- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- reptiles
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Tree canopy- arthropods
Cropland and pasture Special habitat All Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Shrub strata- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- reptiles
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Tree canopy- arthropods
Forageland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Shrub strata- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- reptiles
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Tree canopy- arthropods
Abandoned cropland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Shrub strata- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- reptiles
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Tree canopy- arthropods
Abandoned forageland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Shrub strata- arthropods
Shrub strata- birds
Terrestrial surface- birds
Terrestrial surface- small mammals (< 1 kg)
Terrestrial surface- reptiles
Terrestrial surface- amphibians
Tree canopy- arthropods

Comments on feed-guilding:
Loggerhead eats a wide variety of animals depending on season. See Bent (1950). Species predatory *01,02,05*. Assumed to forage on ground or in shrubs where the main food sources are found *00,01, 02,05,09*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Grassland/forest combination- oak savanna All Spring/summer Tree canopy, small branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs
Cropland and pasture Special habitat Spring/summer Tree canopy, small branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs
Forageland Special habitat Spring/summer Tree canopy, small branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs
Abandoned cropland Special habitat Spring/summer Tree canopy, small branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs
Abandoned forageland Special habitat Spring/summer Tree canopy, small branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Shrub strata, canopy of broad-leaved deciduous shrubs

Comments on breed-guilding:
Breeding taking place in grass and grassland areas where scattered thorny shrubs and trees, and hedgerows are present *01,05,20*. Occassionally found in oaks and red cedar *01,05,06,08*. Nesting in towns and cities on rare occassions *02,04*. Nest elevation between 4-20 ft., Well within the periphery of smaller trees and shrubs with heavily twigged growth *02,04,07,11,16,20*. Non-row crops preferred *05,06*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Salientia (frogs, toads) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrat) Unknown
Parulinae (warblers) Unknown
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) Unknown
Cardinalinae (cardinals, buntings) Unknown
Fringillidae (finches) Unknown
Passeridae (house sparrows) Unknown
Important:
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrat) Unknown
Juvenile:
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Salientia (frogs, toads) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrat) Unknown
Parulinae (warblers) Unknown
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) Unknown
Cardinalinae (cardinals, buntings) Unknown
Fringillidae (finches) Unknown
Passeridae (house sparrows) Unknown
Adult:
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Unknown
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Unknown
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Salientia (frogs, toads) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings, muskrat) Unknown
Parulinae (warblers) Unknown
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) Unknown
Cardinalinae (cardinals, buntings) Unknown
Fringillidae (finches) Unknown
Passeridae (house sparrows) Unknown

Comments on food habits: 
General: Preys mainly on insects and small animals, depending on the season *02,07*. Majority of diet is invertebrates, especially during the summer months *04,07*.
Juvenile: Young fed insects by both parents *14,16*. Older juveniles assumed to feed as adults *00*.
Adult: Impales prey on barbed wire fences or the thorns of shrubs & trees, possibly to be used as food caches *04,07,13,14*. Sparrows and mice more important during winter *02,07*. Sprunt, et al. (1970) mentioned that vertebrates comprise only 28% of the yearly diet; only 8% of diet is small birds.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Orchards: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: unknown
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: unknown
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- herbaceous canopy ave. ht: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous canopy ave. ht: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Human associations: see comments
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Pastures: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous canopy ave. ht: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous canopy ave. ht: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: unknown
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Human associations: see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • Orchards: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: unknown
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Human associations: see comments

Feeding adult:

  • Orchards: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: unknown
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: unknown
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Human associations: see comments

Resting adult:

  • Orchards: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: unknown
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: unknown
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Human associations: see comments

Breeding adult:

  • Orchards: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: unknown
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Shrubs: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: unknown
  • Fruit-producing trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- preferred species of shrub (%): unknown
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Human associations: see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: The use of wheat, hay and abandoned fields is limited by the presences or absence of surrounding preferred hedgerows and trees, mainly osage orange, wild crabapple, honey locust, hawthorn or rose *01,06,08,11*. Occasionally found in oak or red cedar habitat or orchards *01,06,07,08*. Occurences in towns and cities have been reported *02,04*. Loss of preferred habitat is limiting *01,05*.
Feeding juvenile: Fed by both parents in nesting aras, in or near nest *14,16*. Older juveniles assumed to feed as adults *00*.
Resting juvenile: Resting in nest or on home branch *13*. Older juveniles assumed to rest as adults *00*.
Feeding adult: Feeding assumed to occur within the habitats described *00,01,02,03, 05,07*.
Resting adult: Resting taking place on wires, fences and tree tops while waiting for an attack on its prey *04,08,17,20*.
Breeding adult: Breeding assumed to occur within preferred habitats *00,01,02,05,08, 09*. Nest in trees with heavily twigged growth *02*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *03*.

Physical description: Body length - 92.43 to 96.98 mm. *08*. Tail length - 99.10 to 102.77 mm. *01,08*. Total length - 8.25 to 9.75 in. Average from *04,07,17*. Wingspan - 12 1/2 to 13 in. *07*. 96.96 mm. 94.2 to 99.4 *01*. Weight - 44 to 61.10 gr. *01,07*. Large head, slim tail, smaller than northern shrike *02,17*. Color - black mask, dark tail with white outer feathers, slate gray above, off white below, distinctly contrasting blacks, grays and whites, faint vermiculations on breast *01,02,07,08,17*.

Reproduction: Species a year round resident in southern regions of the state. However, additional migrants arrive as early as mid to late February, with peak influxes throughout March *01,02,03*. Males establish nesting territories with aggressive behavior. Other breeding activities include the male fluttering his wings, spreading tail, chasing and bringing food to potential mate *02,07,11*. Nest a well made, bulky structure composed of woven sticks, twigs, weed stems, and grasses, lined with rootlets, feathers and cottony materials. Nesting material is carried by both birds; construction done mostly by the female. Common nest sites include heavily twigged growth of thorny trees and shrubs, averaging 8-15 ft. above ground *01,02,04,07,24*. Graber et al. (1973) state that "double-broodeness, if it occurs, is the exception, rather than the rule in Illinois." 4-8 Eggs per clutch, usually 4-6 *01,02,11,16,24*. Early laying dates occur from late March in southern Illinois to mid April in the northern regions *01*. Bent (1950) lists the laying dates in Illinois from early April through early July. Male feeds the incubating female *20,24*. Incubation period from 16-17 days *01,07,08,11,20,24*. Based on nesting success rates, Graber et al. (1973), reported productivity rate of about 3 to 4 young per breeding pair. Young born altricial *02*. Both parents participate in raising young; male gathers food and feeds while female protects and also feeds *14,16,20*. Fledging takes place 19-20 days after hatching *07,08,16*. Kridelbaugh (1983) reported cannabilizing of dead young. In Colorado, Porter et al. (1975) found nesting, hatching and fledging successes of 66.2%, 79.5%, and 55.9%, respectively. Graber et al. (1973) found nesting success rates of 71% in east central Illinois and 80% in the southeastern region.

Behavior: Territoriality is very prominant in this species, with nesting territories being defended in the spring and summer months and feeding territories being established in the winter *02,07,09,11*. The radius of nesting territories is apparently less than 400 meters *11*. Main population in state is permanent with rare migratory populations in central and northern regions. Portion of southern population is migratory *01,03,06*. Fall migration from mid Oct.-mid Nov. *01,02*. Young become independent after 36 days *08*. Species solitary between breeding seasons *08*. Resting takes place on power lines, fences or higher branches where motionless hours are spent while waiting for prey *02,08,20*. Prey is captured by swooping down from these perches or from the ground *02,08,20*. Foraging usually occurs in early morning or at dusk *08*. The aggressive behavior of the loggerhead towards other birds may have a negative effect on the nesting success of these birds *22*.

Limiting factors: Limiting factors include weather, loss of hedgerows and DDE concentrations related to egg shell thinning, food *01,10,11, 12,16*. Morrison (1979) found no significant change in eggshell thickness in California or Florida from pre-DDT era (1947) to the post 1947 period.

Population parameters: Slow decrease in state *01,06*. Recorded ages up to 6 yrs. *07*. Miller (1931) noted that 50 percent of winter populations are made up of first year birds. No recent signs of recovery *01*. Arbib (1977) reported a population decline of 4% per year.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining early stage of ecological succession
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Seasonal restriction of human use of habitats
  • Developing/maintaining hedge rows/windbreaks
  • Planting several species to enhance diversification and discourage disease epidemics
  • Planting along roadsides
  • Developing/maintaining forest openings
  • Providing food and cover for species under consideration
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting

Adverse:

  • Applying pesticide on agricultural land
  • Strip mining
  • Applying pesticides
  • Controlling undesirable plant species (multiflora rose, autumn olive, kudzu,etc.)
  • Application of pesticides
  • Controlling undesirable invertebrate species (grasshoppers, etc.)

Existing:

  • Performing special survey prior to prescription

Comments on management practices:
Beneficial - unique habitat include hedgerows and thorny species with open area. These habitats should be preserved, maintained & developed *00,06*. This speciesis protected under the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 and the Endangered Species Act of 1977 *06,18*. Also protected by the Ill. Wildlife Code of 1971 *19*. The use of pastures, wheat and hayfields as opposed to row crops would benefit the species *07,16*. A minimum of human interference would be beneficial *20*. Pesticides and habitat loss are thought to be likely reasons for population declines in Missouri *05*.

 


REFERENCES

0. IRISH, J.T. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. (217)333-6846.

1. GRABER, R.R., J.W. GRABER AND E.L. KIRK. 1973. ILLINOIS BIRDS: LANIIDAE. ILLINOIS. NAT. HIST. SURV. BIOL. NOTES NO. 83.

2. BENT, A.C. 1950. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WAGTAILS, SHRIKES, VIREOS AND THEIR ALLIES. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 197.

3. BOHLEN, H. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

4. SPRUNT, A. AND E. CHAMBERLAIN. 1970. SOUTH CAROLINA BIRD LIFE. UNIV. SOUTH CAROLINA PRESS, COLUMBIA. 655 P.

5. KRIDELBAUGH, A.L. 1981. POPULATION TREND, BREEDING AND WINTERING DISTRIBUTION OF LOGGERHEAD SHRIKES (LANIUS LUDOVICIANUS) IN MISSOURI. TRANS. MISSOURI ACAD. SCI 15:111-119.

6. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.G. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 189 P.

7. TERRES, J.K. 1980. THE AUDUBON SOCIETY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED A. KNOPF, INC., N.Y. 1109 PP.

8. MILLER, A.H. 1931. SYSTEMATIC REVISION AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN SHRIKES (LANIUS). MUS. OF VERT. ZOOL. UNIV. OF CA. 231 PP.

9. SMITH, S.M. 1973. AN AGGRESSIVE DISPLAY AND RELATED BEHAVIOR IN THE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. AUK 90(2):287-298.

10. ANDERSON, W.L. AND R.E. DUZAN. 1978. DDE RESIDUES AND EGGSHELL THINNING IN LOGGERHEAD SHRIKES. WILSON BULL. 92(2):215-220.

11. PORTER, D.K., M.A. STRONG, J.B. GIEZENTANNER AND R.A. RYDER. 1975. NEST ECOLOGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND GROWTH OF THE LOGERHEAD SHRIKE ON THE SHORTGRASS PRAIRIE. THE SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 19(4):429-436.

12. LINSDALE, J.M. 1938. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSES OF VERTEBRATES IN THE GREAT BASIN. MID. NAT. 19(1):1-206.

13. FORD, E.R. 1936. UNUSUAL NEST SITE OF THE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE (LANIUS LUDOVICIANUS LUDOVICIANUS). AUK 53(2):219.

14. APPLEGATE, R.D. 1977. POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF FOOD CACHES OF LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. AUK 94(2):391-392.

15. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1983. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 6TH EDIT. ALLEN PRESS, INC., LAWRENCE, KN. 877 PP.

16. KRIDELBAUGH, A.L. 1983. NESTING ECOLOGY OF THE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE IN CENTRAL MISSOURI. WIL. BULL. 95(2):303-308.

17. PETERSON, R.T. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS EAST OF THE ROCKIES. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 384 PP.

18. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1, PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPEC. PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SERV. ADMIN. OCT. 1.

19. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE ART. II, PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILL. REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN.

20. ANDERSON, G. 1980. THE BUTCHER. KANSAS FISH AND GAME 37(6):13-16.

21. MORRISON, M.L. 1979. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE EGGSHELL THICKNESS IN CALIFORNIA AND FLORIDA. WILSON BULL. 91(3):468-469.

22. REYNOLDS, T.D. 1979. THE IMPACT OF LOGGERHEAD SHRIKES ON NESTING BIRDS IN A SAGEBRUSH ENVIRONMENT. AUK 96(4):798-800.

23. ARBIB, R. 1977. THE BLUE LIST FOR 1978. AMER. BIRDS 31(6):1087-1096. 24. HARRISON, H.H. 1975. FIELD GUIDE TO BIRDS' NESTS. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 257 PP.

25. U.S. DEPT. OF INTERIOR, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE [USDI] 1982. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS; REVIEEW OF VERTEBRATE WILDLIFE FOR LISTING AS ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECEIS. FED. REG. 47(251): 58454-58460.


 

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