Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Anhinga
Anhinga anhinga

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Pelicaniformes
  • Family: Anhingidae
  • Genus: Anhinga
  • Species: Anhinga anhinga
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Previously Plotus anhinga Linnaeus, 1766, syst. nat. Also known as American darter. The relationship of A. anhinga to the old world forms A. rufa (Dandin, 1802) of Africa, A. melanogaster Pennant, 1769, of southeast Asia, and A. novaehollandiae (Gould, 1847) of the Australian region, remains in doubt; some authors suggest that all forms constitute a single superspecies *04*. Other common names include: American darter; black darter; black-bellied darter, darter; snake-bird; water turkey; white-bellied darter *05*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Very rare vagrant in central and south. Five recorded sitings in Illinois before 1977 *01*. Three recorded sitings since 1977 *02,03*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
Protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 1918 *06*. Non-game bird protected under Illinois Wildlife Code *07*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Bald cypress-tupelo Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Unknown All
Oak-gum-cypress Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Unknown All

Associated tree species:

  • Bald cypress
  • Tupelo gum
  • Willow

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Estuarine Intertidal Emergent vegetation Persistent Permanent nontidal Coastal mixohaline (brackish)
Estuarine Intertidal Forest Broadleaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Coastal mixohaline (brackish)
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Persistent Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Lacustrine Littoral Forest Broadleaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Forest Broadleaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Forest Dead trees Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Unknown perennial Emergent vegetation Persistent Permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Unknown perennial Forest Broadleaved deciduous Permanent nontidal Freshwater

Comments on species-habitat associations:
In range, found nesting and roosting in trees and bushes in freshwater swamps, lakes, sluggish streams in sheltered and murky waters, fresh-water marshy sloughs of sawgrass with clumps of willows, along fresh-water canals, and in cypress sloughs, often in areas overgrown with vegetation. Near coastal areas, found around brackish lagoons, and in mangrove-bordered salt and brackish bays, lagoons, and tidal streams *04,05,08,10,11*. Usually found in river bottomlands in Illinois *01,02,03*.

Important plant and animal association: Primarily feeds on fish and is found in wetland habitats *05*. Nests in small groups with herons, egrets; may appropriate nest of egrets and herons and use or may build own nest *05*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Water Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Streams and canals Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Reservoirs Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Lakes Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Bays and estuaries Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Forested wetland Special habitat All
Nonforested wetland Special habitat All
Wetland Special habitat All
Marsh Special habitat All
Brackish marsh Special habitat All
Swamp Special habitat All
Shrub swamp Special habitat All
Lakes and ponds Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Streams Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
River Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All

Species-habitat interrelations: In range, found nesting and roosting in trees and bushes in fresh- water swamps, lakes, sluggish streams in sheltered and murky waters, fresh-water marshy sloughs of sawgrass with clumps of willows, along fresh-water canals, and in cypress sloughs, often in areas overgrown with vegetation. Near coastal areas, found around brackish lagoons, and in mangrove-bordered salt and brackish bays, lagoons, and tidal streams *04,05,08,10,11*. Usually found in river bottomlands in Illinois *01,02,03*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Water Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Water column- arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water surface- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- amphibians
Water column- reptiles
Water surface- reptiles
Wetland Special habitat All Water column- arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water surface- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- amphibians
Water column- reptiles
Water surface- reptiles
Lakes and Ponds Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Water column- arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water surface- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- amphibians
Water column- reptiles
Water surface- reptiles
Streams Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Water column- arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water surface- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- amphibians
Water column- reptiles
Water surface- reptiles
River Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Water column- arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water surface- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- amphibians
Water column- reptiles
Water surface- reptiles

Comments on feed-guilding:
Dives under water for prey, from surface or while flying over water, or from perch. Feeds primarily on fishes, also eats aquatic insects, crayfish, leeches, shrimps, tadpoles, eggs of frogs, young alligators and water snakes *05,08,10*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of needle-leaved deciduous trees
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of needle-leaved deciduous trees
Swamp Special habitat Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of needle-leaved deciduous trees
Shrub swamp Special habitat Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, branches of needle-leaved deciduous trees

Comments on breed-guilding:
Does not breed in Illinois *01*. Nests in branches in trees, from 5-20 ft. above water. Loosely built of leaves and sticks, lined with moss and green cypress foliage *05,08,10,11*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Annelida: Hirudinea (leeches) Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Unknown
Salmoniformes (trouts, salmons, smelts, pikes) Unknown
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Unknown
Siluriformes (catfishes) Unknown
Perciformes (basses, sunfishes, perches, sculpins) Unknown
Salientia (frogs, toads) Egg/fetus
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile
Reptiles Unknown
Testudines (turtles) Unknown
Crocodila (alligator, crocodile) Juvenile
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown
Important:
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Unknown
Reptiles Unknown
Juvenile:
Adult:
Annelida: Hirudinea (leeches) Unknown
Malacostraca (isopods, amphipods, crayfishes) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Unknown
Salmoniformes (trouts, salmons, smelts, pikes) Unknown
Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, loaches) Unknown
Siluriformes (catfishes) Unknown
Perciformes (basses, sunfishes, perches, sculpins) Unknown
Salientia (frogs, toads) Egg/fetus
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile
Reptiles Unknown
Testudines (turtles) Unknown
Crocodila (alligator, crocodile) Juvenile
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Unknown
Serpentes (snakes) Unknown

Comments on food habits: 
General: Dives under water from surface, while flying over water, or from perch. Spears on bill catfishes, pickeral, mullet, mojarrita, sunfishes, gizzard shad, and bream; also may take goldfishes from outdoor pond; eats aquatic insects, crayfishes, shrimps, tadpoles, eggs of frogs, leeches, and spears frogs, water snakes, and young alligators; also takes small terrapins; known to eat hackberries. Fish is principal part of diet. Fishes in fresh water and in tidal waters of a bay between two oyster bars *05,08,10*.
Juvenile: Assume that young, once fledged, eat a diet similar to adults. See comments under general food habits *00*.
Adult: See comments under general food habits *00*.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: intercoastal waters
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Large lone trees: unknown
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable forest
  • Human associations: national parks/historical landmarks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Limiting:

  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp

Feeding juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: intercoastal waters
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable forest
  • Human associations: national parks/historical landmarks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Resting juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: intercoastal waters
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Large lone trees: unknown
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable forest
  • Human associations: national parks/historical landmarks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Feeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: intercoastal waters
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable forest
  • Human associations: national parks/historical landmarks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Resting adult:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: intercoastal waters
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Large lone trees: unknown
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable forest
  • Human associations: national parks/historical landmarks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Breeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: brackish water marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: mangrove swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Hardwood forest: unknown
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable forest
  • Human associations: national parks/historical landmarks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Needs wetland areas for most activities, especially for feeding. May be found in all activities near coastal or inland wetlands such as fresh-water, brackish, and salt-water swamps, lakes, sluggish streams, cypress sloughs. Roosts and nests on land, usually in mature trees *04,05,08,10,11*.
Feeding juvenile: See comments under feeding adult *00*.
Resting juvenile: At six weeks of age, young fly from nest during day, but return for night *11*. See comments under resting adult *00*.
Feeding adult: Adults feed in lagoons, lakes, marshes, streams, swamps for various aquatic animals. Often dive into water for prey from high perch on tree limb. May fish in fresh or tidal waters *05,08,10*.
Resting adult: Species may roost on tall dead trees *08*.
Breeding adult: Species does not breed in Illinois *01*. Nests in forked limbs of trees, usually within forest setting, in cyrpess, mangrove, willow and pond-apple trees. Nests may be in colonies on small isolated clumps of willows or on the borders of the larger willow islands inhabited by herons *05,08,10,11*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native, but very rare vagrant in central and south. Total of eight recorded sitings in Illinois *01,02, 03*.

Physical description: 32-36 in. long; wingspread to 4 ft.; blackish with very long thin neck, small snakelike head, long fan-like tail; silver on forewings - all distinguish it from comorants; has ruby-red eyes; females have pale buffy head, neck and breast; male has black; immatures overall brown instead of dark. weighs 3 lbs. *05* or about 1,326 gm. *10*.

Reproduction: In Florida, eggs laid February-June; in Louisiana and Texas, eggs laid April-June; population not synchronous in egg-laying *11*; incubation is by both sexes, about 25-28 days *05, 11*; while one parent incubates, the other feeds and dries its feathers *11*; one reproductive period per year *08*; 1-5, usually 3-5, chalky blue-green eggs laid *03,10*; courtship displays include feather preening; bill rubbing; carrying of twigs to potential nest sites. Male brings female a twig. They clack their bills together and copulate on tree limb. This behavior continues for about three days until nest site is chosen. Bill clacking may continue into incubation period *11*.

Behavior: Nests from S.E. Oklahoma and E. Texas to E. North Carolina, south to S. Florida, Cuba and Argentina; withdraws to gulf coast, Florida and S. South Carolina in winter; has strayed to Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Nebraska, Michigan, Illinois, Ontario, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey *05*; feeds during the day; roosts in trees at night *08*; in U.S., the more northerly breeders are migratory, with spring occupation of breeding areas in March-April and fall departure by early October. S. Florida populations may have only limited dispersal movements, with prebreeders probably going farthest *10*. Dives under water from surface, while flying over water, or from perch. Spears on bill cutfishes, pickeral, mullet, mojarrita, sunfishes, gizzard shad, and bream; also may take goldfishes from outdoor pond; eats aquatic insects, crayfishes, shrimps, tadpoles, eggs of frogs, leeches, and spears frogs, water snakes and young alligators; also takes small terrapins; known to eat hackberries. Fish is principal part of diet, gathered from fresh water and in tidal waters *05,08,10*. Nests in small groups with herons, egrets, either takes and uses nest of common and snowy egret and little blue heron or builds own *05*. Nest built in upright, three-forked limb in tree, from 5-20 ft. above water or ground *11*. Often built in a colony on small isolated clumps of willows or on border of larger willow islands *08*; nest is built of sticks and twigs and lined with green leaves, moss, willow catkins, and is quite large and bulky in shape *05,08,10,11*; male gathers material and female builds *10*; nests built by anhingas usually smaller and more compact than those appropriated from herons or egrets *10*; nest built in 8-12 days *11*; nest built in one day *10*. Incubation period 25-28 days *05,11*; eight weeks from hatching to independence from parents *11*; both parents feed young regurgitated food *05,11*; after 10 days, parents feed less, and are both absent from nest for long periods of time; at one month feeding entirely responsibility of female *11*, at about 2 weeks old, young may jump out of nest into water if disturbed and are able to climb back into nest up tree limbs *05,11*; by end of May and early June, juveniles and adults have dispersed for the summer *11*. Roost in lone large trees at night *08*; anhingas' feathers are wettable, not waterproof, which forces them to come to land to dry their wings *05*.

Population parameters: Banded bird in the wild lived to 9 years, 8 months. Individual in captivity lived to 16.5 years *05*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Controlling pollution
  • Controlling pollution in aquatic habitats
  • Maintaining streams
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining mudflats
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Controlling wind and water erosion
  • Developing/maintaining woodlots
  • Developing/maintaining forest edge
  • Maintaining forests
  • Developing/maintaining water holes, ponds, potholes, etc.
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Maintaining undisturbed resting areas for migrating birds

Adverse:

  • Channelization
  • Dredging
  • Draining wetlands
  • Applying pesticide on agricultural land
  • Applying herbicide
  • Applying insecticide

Comments on management practices:
No comments.

 


REFERENCES

0. MORRIS, M.J. 1986. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, IL. 61820. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

2. KLEEN, V. 1977. FIELD NOTES: BREEDING SEASON. ILL. AUD. BULL. NO. 184.

3. KLEEN, V. 1985. FIELD NOTES: SPRING MIGRATION. ILL. BIRDS AND BIRDING. V.1:4.

4. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1984. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 6TH EDITION. ALLEN PRESS, INC. LAWRENCE KS. 877 P.

5. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

6. U.S. FISH WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SERVICES ADMIN. OCTOBER 1.

7. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 123 PP.

8. BENT, A.C. 1922. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN PETRELS AND PELICANS AND THEIR ALLIES. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 121. 343 PP.

9. UNPB. SMITH, JOHN. MO. DEPT. CONSERV. 1110 COLLEGE AVE., COLUMBIA, MO. 65201. (314)449-3761.

10. PALMER, R.S., ED. 1962. HANDBOOK OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. VOL. 1. LOONS THROUGH FLAMINGOS. NEW HAVEN, CONN. AND LONDON: YALE UNIV. PRESS. 567 PP.

11. HARRIOTT, 1970. BREEDING BEHAVIOR OF THE ANHINGA. FLORIDA NAT. 43(4): 138-43.

 


 

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