Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Greater prairie-chicken
Tympanuchus cupido

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Galliformes
  • Family: Phasianidae
  • Genus: Tympanuchus
  • Species: Tympanuchus cupido
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Other names include old yellowlegs, pinnated grouse, prairie grouse, prairie hen *04,11*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Found in Jasper, Marion, Effingham, Wayne, Clay and Washington Counties as a rare and local permanent resident *01,11,16*. Westemeier (1984) states that species is limited to Jasper and Marion Counties.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
Formerly a highly ranked game bird *06,07*. Destruction of suitable habitat, changes in agricultural practices, and market hunting in the mid 1800's have been the main reasons for this species present status *16,24,25,27*. Species listed on state endangered list of 1977 *16*. Species is nonmigratory *22*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Oak-pine All 0-40% All
Maple-beech-birch All 0-40% All
Aspen-birch All 0-40% All

Associated tree species:

  • Aspen
  • Sugar maple

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Habitat includes open meadows & prairies with gentle slopes and well- drained soil *03,04,07,09,10,12,16,25,26,27,29*. Scattered stands of pines, oaks, aspens & maples adjacent to grassland where nesting may take place near small or scrub trees *07,10,11,13,17,26,29*. Pastureland suitable if managed properly *03,05*.

Important plant and animal association: Pheasants, rose hips.
Rose hips often mentioned as part of diet *07,10,11,15,17*. Pheasant parasitizing nest *19,28*. Redtop often mentioned as preferred nesting cover *03,05,06,08,17,25,26,27,29*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Central and eastern grasslands- bluestem prairie Special habitat All
Grassland/forest combination- oak savanna Special habitat All
Cropland and pasture Special habitat All
Herbaceous rangeland Special habitat All
Mixed rangeland Special habitat All
Prairie Special habitat All
Hill prairie Special habitat All
Abandoned forageland Special habitat All
Forageland Special habitat All
Savanna Special habitat All

Species-habitat interrelations: Type of habitat (grassland) function (breeding/nesting/feeding) value (high) season (all) drainage (well drained). Grasslands important in all stages of life *03,05,09,10,11,12,16*. Nesting and booming sites (courtship) on well drained grasslands *07,09,10,16*. Often nest in thick vegetation (shrubs) found on grasslands *02,07,10,17*. Pasture and forageland need to be well managed to maintain optimal height of vegetation, sanderson et al. (1973).

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Central and eastern grasslands- bluestem prairie Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Grassland/forest combination- oak savanna Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Cropland and pasture Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
terrestrial surface- arthropods
Herbaceous rangeland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Mixed rangeland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Dry-mesic prairie Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Savanna Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Agricultural field Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Forageland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Abandoned forageland Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface-leaves and stems of forbs
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Shrub strata- flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous shrubs
Terrestrial surface- arthropods

Comments on feed-guilding:
Food eaten depends on season, insects mostly in summer, fall and winter herbivorous *11,14*. Waste grains in winter *24,27*. Feeding done almost exclusively on cultivated fields in late winter and early spring *30*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Hill prairie Grass-forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata
Prairie Grass-forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata
Central and eastern grasslands- bluestem prairie Grass-forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata
Abandoned forageland Grass-forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata
Mixed rangeland Grass-forb Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata
Grassland/forest combination- oak savannaa Special habitat Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata
Savanna Special habitat Spring/summer Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Shrub strata, grass and grasslike vegetation extending into shrub strata
Shrub strata, forb vegetation extending into shrub strata

Comments on breed-guilding:
Nest in proximity of booming ground in thick grasses, weeds, and low bushes or shrubs *02,05,07,11,17,26,29,30*. Courtship of male done on elevated open area where he can be seen; mating takes place in same area *02,18*. Polygynous mating system.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Fagaceae (beech, oak) Fruit/seeds
Rosaceae (rose, cherry, plum, apple) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): corn Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Important:
Rosaceae (rose, cherry, plum, apple) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): corn Fruit/seeds
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Juvenile:
Poaceae (grass): corn Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown
Adult:
Fagaceae (beech, oak) Fruit/seeds
Rosaceae (rose, cherry, plum, apple) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): corn Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): oats Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): wheat Fruit/seeds
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Larva
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Unknown

Comments on food habits: 
General: Insectivorous in summer, herbivorous during other season *07,11,14*. Seeds and fruit make up most of plant diet; buds and leaves also taken *35*. Waste grain important in winter *24,27*.
Juvenile: Feed themselves soon after hatching, primarily on insects *02,07,18*. Dewberry and insects important *25,30*. Older juveniles assumed to feed as adults (see comments on feeding adults).
Adult: Feed in early morning and late afternoon/early evening *02,17*. Feeding done almost exclusively on cultivated fields in late winter and early spring *30*.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Soil needs: see comments
  • Vegetation mosaics/edges: see comments
  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Herbs-leguminous forbs: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Ground cover- shrub (%): see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Vegetation mosaics/edges: see comments
  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland

Egg:

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland

Resting juvenile:

  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland

Feeding adult:

  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland

Resting adult:

  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland

Breeding adult:

  • Ecotones: see comments
  • Pastures: see comments
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Old fields: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: abandoned fields
  • Vegetation successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
  • Vegetation successional stage: subclimax grassland

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Grasslands are areas of feeding, nesting and mating, variety of grasses preferred with edges and breaks in breeding/nesting cover *02, 03,05,13*. Courtship and nesting areas of well-drained soils are are favored *05,07,09,16,25*. Grasslands and pasturelands should be managed to maintain a vegetative height of 10-20 in. and fairly dense *03,05,07,29,32*. Ammann (1957) reports habitat best where 50% or more of environment is in grassland and 10-25% in woody cover. Mixtures preferred include timothy, redtop, big & little bluestem, alfalfa, legumes, bluegrass, yarrow, evening primrose, cinquefoil, sedges, rushes, foxtail, dewberry, goldenrod, sweetfern, & brome *03, 05,06,08,25,26,27,29*. Oldfields are useful if not left idle for too long (2-5 yrs) *25,29,32*. Scattered pines, oaks, osage orange hedges, shrubs and aspen mentioned for their use as food and cover *07,10,13, 17,26*. Loss of these nesting habitats limits this species *24,25,32*.
Feeding juvenile: Feeding done away from nest, in grasses, where insects are found *02,07*.
Resting juvenile: Sits quietly along hedgerows during day, between feedings *02,17*.
Feeding adult: Rose hips often mentioned as food item *07,10,11*. Assumed to be done in areas where grasshoppers, grains and seeds are found *02,07,10,13, 15*. Waste grain crops useful as winter food *24,27*.
Resting adult: After booming season, males rest during most of the day, see watt (1973). Adults rest between feedings, in hedgerows *02,17*. Roost year round in untilled fields *27*. Dorbney et al (1977) reported that 88% of roosting done in prairie pasture *30*.
Breeding adult: Courtship may take place on rock outcropping or exposed soil *05,13*. Time of breeding influenced by weather, see Yeatter (1943).


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native to prairie states *03,05,09,10*.

Physical description: Tails rounded -- males dark, females barred *02,11,12*. males 2 lbs. to 2 lbs. 3 oz., females about 1 lb. 10 oz. to 1 lb. 15 oz. *02,10,11,17,18*. Legs feathered to feet *02,11*. erectile neck feathers, longer on males *02,10,18*. male with bright orange eyebrows and air sacs. These sacs are less pronounced on females *02,10,11,12,18*. Transversely barred uppers and heavily so underneath *10,11,12*. Length between 16 1/2 to 18 in. *10,11,12*. Wingspread 28 in. *10,11*.

Reproduction: Territories are established on the "booming" grounds by the males and are often defended through fall and winter *28,33*. Breeding season begins in late winter to early spring with the onset of courtship displays by the male on the elevated booming grounds. This activity includes a dance and display of bright orange tympani along with the erection of pinnea (neck feathers) *02,13,14, 17,18*. In Wisconsin, male display was found to be "critically important" in April with females reaching their peak numbers on the breeding grounds by the 3rd or 4th week of same month *31*. Hamerstrom et al. (1973) observed that the booming activity is most common about 45 min. before sunrise to an hour or two later. Mating activity begins as early as late March and extends to mid June, peaking from mid April to late May in several states, including Illinois *06,09,17,31,33*. Smaller peaks in mid May and occasional occurrences into June, probably due to late or re-nestings *31*. Copulation takes place on the booming grounds *02*. Breeding areas are preferred to be 10 to 50 acre openings *13,15,29*. A majority or all of the mating is done by only a few dominate males *26,33*. Construction of nest (by female) begins in April or May *11,18,23, 33*. Nest usually within 1 mi. Of booming grounds *02,05,17,26,27*. Located on ground near grassland or tree edges in thick vegetation of grasses, weeds or bushes *02,07,10,11,26,27*. Flimsy, lined with feathers, small twigs and dead grasses, wall hidden *07,10,11,26*. One brood per season, may re-nest if 1st is destroyed, depending on how late this destruction occurs *02,11,17,25,26,33*. Five to seventeen eggs per clutch, usually twelve *02,07,10,11,17,26*. Laid over several days *02,07*. Olive to grayish olive buff, smooth, somewhat glossy, about 45 x 34 mm *02,07,10,11,26*. Hatching in early May to early July *07,11,17,25*. Incubation from 21 to 24 days, by female *02,11,26*. Five to 9.3 young per brood *30,34*. Nesting success between 25 and 65%, usually around 50% *02,07,13,30*. Vance et al. (1979) found a 24% nesting success when species was parasitized by pheasant and a 51% success when not parasitized. Hatching success is high when nest survives the full incubation period *02,13*. Young raised by female, very precocial *02,07,11,17*. Young able to capture prey soon after hatching, see [JF]. Fledge in 1 to 4 weeks *02,11*. Independent at 10 to 12 weeks *02,18*. Ammann (1957) states that sexual maturity is reached at one year of age.

Behavior: Territory often defended through fall and winter *02,28*. Size of territory related to mating success, larger territories correlated to more matings, see Robel (1957). Range of flock about 200 acres to 1 mi square *02,09*. Juveniles with 38-87 ha. range *34*. Species not migratory but does have seasonal movements. These movements are greatest from Nov.-March, peaking in Feb., when there is an increased search for food and daily movements by the males to the booming grounds *30,34*. Female movement peaks in April *02*. A decrease in movement takes place between March and Sept. When there is an increased use of areas near the booming grounds *30,31,34*. During the mating season, males leave the booming grounds only to feed, once in the morning and again in the late afternoon *02,07*. Hamerstrom et al. (1973) mentioned that males usually stay near the booming grounds year round once they establish a territory. Males are solitary after booming but gather at booming grounds again from as early as Sept. through Nov. *02,09,13,28,29*. In Dec. and Jan., males return to feeding grounds *02*. Unisexual flocking flocking in winter if weather is adverse *02,09*. For details of seasonal movements, see Watt (1973), Robel et al. (1970) or Dorbney et al. (1977). Young begin to disperse in late August to late Sept., at 10 to 14 weeks of age, but continue to roost together at night. Dispersal not complete until the following spring or summer *34*. The hen deserts her brood previous to the initial dispersion *34*. Juveniles gather together in autumn, sexes divided *02,07,10*. Immatures, on the average, move farther than adults *31,34*. Feeding done almost exclusively on cultivated lands in late winter and early spring *30*. Roost between feedings in several cover types including untilled fields and prairie pasture *02,27,30*.

Limiting factors: The loss of nesting habitat appears to be the prominent limiting factor *03,05,06,10,16,17,18,21,24,25,32*. Weather *07,13,27*. Disease and parasitism of young mentioned *27*. Predation *16,17,19,30,28*. Vance et al. (1979) found harassment and parasitism by pheasants to be adverse to breeding and nesting success.

Population parameters: Lifespan is short, Ammann (1957). 1.03/1.36 immatures/adults in KS and MI *13*. High nest mortality if nesting areas are mowed before July *18*. Hamerstrom et al. (1973) reported annual mortality rates of 52% and 59% for immature males and females, respectively and 55% and 51% for adult males and females, respectively, combining for a 54% annual mortality rate. 56% Mortality for broods under 10 weeks of age *34*. Greatest mortality in early autumn, when dispersal takes place *34*. Believed to have a population cycle similar to the roughed grouse, i.e. 10 yr. *13,15, 17,20,31*. Propagation by artificial means not successful *18,21*. Westemeier (1984) reports that highs in population tend to be in years ending with a 1, 2 or 3 while lows tend to be in years ending in 6, 7 or 8. It is also suggested by Westemeier (1984), that a minimum threshold population may exist that the species must not fall below. This number is yet to be accurately determined but could be approximately 50 individuals. Relative trends have been fluctuating *21*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining early stage of ecological succession
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining habitat diversity
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.)
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Creating topographic features
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • No-till farming
  • Haying/mowing
  • Retaining crop residue (over winter)
  • Planting cover crops/preparatory
  • Grazing management to allow vegetative recovery
  • Controlled grazing of domestic livestock
  • Using of revegetated areas for special-use pastures
  • Developing/maintaining hedge rows/windbreaks
  • Contouring to create knolls in mine areas
  • Planting native vegetation
  • Planting several species to enhance diversification and discourage disease epidemics
  • Periodically burning prairie areas
  • Developing/maintaining native vegetation
  • Mowing
  • Develop/maintain prairie
  • Plant management practices other than those included in ifwis list (see comments)
  • Developing/maintaining forest openings
  • Providing food and cover for species under consideration
  • Estimating/maintaining nesting and escape cover
  • Creating artificial leks or display grounds

Adverse:

  • Clean farming
  • Uncontrolled grazing by domestic livestock
  • Strip mining
  • Spoil compaction by heavy equipment in mine areas
  • Mowing

Existing:

  • Performing special survey prior to prescription

Comments on management practices:
Elevated display grounds essential *02,13,14,15*. Mowing beneficial *03,05,32*. Adverse if done at improper time *18,25*. Controlled grazing can create diversity *30,32*. Scattering tracts of grassland to be used as nesting and feeding grounds and cover areas, yet maintaining a fairly close proximity to each other is essential *25, 27*. Prescribed burning at 3-5 yr intervals to maintain desired grasses (timothy, redtop, bluestem, etc.) beneficial *03,05,08,29, 32*. Manage grasslands to provide grasses 10-20 in. in height and fairly dense with bare or scantily vegetated booming grounds next to nesting sites by use of combining for seed, grazing or sharecropping *03,05,08,16,29*. Grasslands left idle for too long become undesirable for species *32*. Prairie chicken management units should be at least 2 sq. mi. *32*. Management of natural grasslands beneficial *03,05,16, 29*. Untilled fields supply waste grain, a valuable winter food *24, 27*. Prairie pastures, nonagricultural land and untilled fields useful as escape and roosting cover *27,30*. Species prefers areas with well- drained soils *05,07,09,16,25*. Prevent pheasant-prairie chicken interactions *28*. Species protected by the Illinois Endangered Species Protection Act of 1972 and the Illinois Wildlife Code of 1971 *16,23*.

 


REFERENCES

0. IRISH, JEFFREY T. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

2. WATT, P.G. 1973. LIFE HISTORY AND BEHAVIOR OF GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKENS. IN W.D. SVEDARSKY'S AND T. WOLFE'S, EDITORS, THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN IN MINNESOTA. UNIV. OF MINN., CROOKSTON, PP. 5-14.

3. KIRSHCH, L.M. 1973. HABITAT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRAIRIE CHICKENS. IN W.D. SVEDARSKY'S AND T. WOLF'S, EDITORS, THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN IN MINNESOTA. UNIV. OF MINN., CROOKSTON. PP. 30-38.

4. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1983. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 6TH EDITION. ALLEN PRESS, INC. LAWRENCE, KN. 877 PP.

5. SANDERSON, G.C., R.L. WESTEMEIER AND W.R. EDWARDS. 1973. ACQUISITION AND MANAGEMENT OF PRAIRIE CHICKEN SANCTUARIES IN ILLINOIS. IN W.D. SVEDARSKY AND T. WOLFE, EDITORS. THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN IN MINNESOTA, UNIV. OF MN., CROOKSTON. PP. 59-79.

6. YEATTER, R.E. 1957. IS THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN DOOMED? ILLINOIS WILDLIFE. 12(2).

7. BENT, A.C. 1932. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 162.

8. WESTEMEIER, R.L. AND D.R. VANCE. 1972. RESPONSES OF PRAIRIE CHICKENS TO HABITAT MANIPULATION. MONTHLY WILDLIFE RESEARCH LETTER. ILL. DEPT. OF CONS. AND NATL. HIST. SURVEY, G.C. SANDERSON AND H.C. SHULTZ, (EDS.) 15(7):3.

9. ROBEL, R.J., J.N. BRIGGS, J.J. CEBULA, N.J. SILVY, C.E. VIERS AND P.G. WATT. 1970. GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN RANGES, MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USAGE IN KANSAS. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT. VOL. 34, NO. 2. PP. 286-306.

10. POUGH, R.H. 1951. AUDUBON BIRD GUIDE: WATER, GAME AND LARGE LAND BIRDS. DOUBLEDAY AND COMPANY, INC., GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK. 352 PP. + 48 PLS.

11. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

12. PETERSON, R.T. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS EAST OF THE ROCKIES. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 384 PP.

13. AMMANN, G.A. 1957. THE PRAIRIE GROUSE OF MICHIGAN. MICH. DEPT. OF CONSERV. TECH. BULL., LANSING, MI. 200 PP.

14. BRECKENRIDGE, W.J. 1929. THE BOOMING OF THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN. AUK VOL. 46 NO. 1. PP. 540-543.

15. LEOPOLD, A. 1931. REPORT ON A GAME SURVEY OF THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES. SPORTING ARMS AND AMMUNITION MANUFCTS. INST. MADISON, WISC. 299 PP.

16. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 189 P.

17. YEATTER, R.E. 1943. THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN IN ILL.: ILL. STATE NATL. HIST. SURVEY BULLETIN. VOL. 22, ART. 4. PP. 377-416.

18. LOCKART, J. 1968. THE LAST CHANCE FOR THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN. ILL. DEPT. OF CONS. 8 PP.

19. VANCE, D.R. AND R.L. WESTEMEIER. 1979. INTERACTIONS OF PHEASANTS AND PRAIRIE CHICKENS IN ILL. THE WILDLIFE SOCIETY BULLETIN. VOL. 7, NO. 4. PP. 221-225.

20. WESTEMEIER, R. 1984. PRAIRIE CHICKEN MANAGEMENT -- CYCLES, DENSITIES AND THRESHOLDS. ILL. NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY REPORTS. NO. 235.

21. WESTEMEIER, R. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION (PHONE CONSERVATION DATED 29 FEBRUARY, 1984). GRASSLAND WILDLIFE RESEARCH LABORATORY.

22. U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERV. 1983. CODES OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP. 11-18. 50CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPEC. PUBL. FED. REGISTER. GENERAL SERV. ADMIN. OCT. 1.

23. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS, CH. 61. WILDLIFE ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN.

24. CANNON, R.W. 1984. CAN WE SAVE THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN? MISSOURI CONSERV. 45(4):4-7.

25. YEATTER, R.E. 1963. POPULATION RESPONSES OF PRAIRIE CHICKENS TO LAND- USE CHANGES IN ILLINOIS. J. WILDL. MANAG. 27(4):739-757.

26. HARRISON, H.H. 1975. FIELD GUIDE TO BIRDS' NESTS. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 257 PP.

27. YEATTER, R.E. 1937. A PRAIRIE CHICKEN MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR ILLINOIS. ILL. CONSERV. 2(1):9-11.

28. VANCE, D.R. AND R.L. WESTEMEIER. 1979. INTERACTIONS OF PHEASANTS AND PRAIRIE CHICKENS IN ILLINOIS. WILDL. SOC. BULL. 7(4):221-225.

29. WESTEMEIER, R.L. 1972. PRESCRIBED BURNING IN GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT OF PRAIRIE CHICKENS IN ILLINOIS. PROC. ANN. TALL TIMBERS FIRE ECOLOGY CONFERENCE, JUNE 8-9. PP. 317-338.

30. DORBNEY, R.D. AND R.D. SPARROWE. 1977. LAND USE RELATIONSHIPS AND MOVEMENTS OF GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKENS IN MISSOURI. TRANS. MISSOURI ACAD. SCI. 10-11:146-160.

31. HAMERSTROM, F. AND F. HAMERSTROM. 1973. THE PRAIRIE CHICKEN IN WISCONSIN. WISC. DEPT. NAT. RES. TECH. BULL. NO. 64. 52 PP.

32. KIRSCH, L.M. 1974. HABITAT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRAIRIE CHICKENS. WILDL. SOC. BULL. 2(3):124-129.

33. ROBEL, R.J. 1970. POSSIBLE ROLE OF BEHAVIOR IN REGULATING GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN POPULATIONS. J. WILDL. MANAG. 34(2):306-312.

34. BOWMAN, T.J. AND R.J. ROBEL. 1977. BROOD BREAK-UP, DISPERSAL, MOBILITY, AND MORTALITY OF JUVENILE PRAIRIE CHICKENS. J. WILDL. MANAG. 41(1):27-34.

35. MARTIN, A., H. ZIM AND A. NELSON. 1951. AMERICAN WILDLIFE AND PLANTS. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., NEW YORK. 500 PP.

 


 

Next ---- Previous



Illinois Natural History Survey

1816 South Oak Street, MC 652
Champaign, IL 61820
217-333-6880
cms@inhs.illinois.edu

Terms of use. Email the Web Administrator with questions or comments.

© 2019 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.
For permissions information, contact the Illinois Natural History Survey.

Staff Intranet
Login