Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Cooper's Hawk
Accipiter cooperii

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Falconiformes
  • Family: Accipitridae
  • Genus: Accipiter
  • Species: Accipiter cooperii
  • Authority: (Bonaparte)

Comments on taxonomy:
Originally Falco cooperii Bonaparte. Amer. Orn., Vol. 2, 1828, p. 1, pl. 10, fig. 1 *20*.


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species (F)

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
All Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Unknown Spring/summer
All Old growth
(trees 100 yrs. old)
Unknown Spring/summer

Associated tree species: No records

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
All forest cover types Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Cropland and pasture Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Deciduous forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Evergreen forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Mixed forest land Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Decidous forest land All All
Evergreen forest land All All
Mixed forest land All All
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Forest All All
Upland forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Upland forest All All
Agricultural field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Successional field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All
Forest restoration All All
Prairie restoration Special habitat All
Forest restoration Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer

Species-habitat interrelations: Mature forests with tall trees for nesting are high value habitat *08,18*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
All forest cover types All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Cropland and pasture Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Deciduous forest land All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Evergreen forest land All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Mixed forest land All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Forest All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Upland forest All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Agricultural field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Successional field Not applicable
(HVAL-HAB cover)
All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Forest restoration All All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Tree bole-birds
Tree canopy-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals
Air-mammals
Prairie restoration Special habitat All Terrestrial surface-arthropods
Air-arthropods
Terrestrial surface-reptiles
Terrestrial surface-birds
Shrub strata-birds
Air-birds
Terrestrial surface-small mammals

Comments on feed-guilding:
Cooper's hawks are predatory birds; medium-sized birds are apparently their preferred prey *04*. This species hunts from low, inconspicuous perches, either in woods or near cover *04*. Prey is caught in air, on cround, or in foliage *04*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
All forest cover types Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved decidous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees
Deciduous forest land Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved decidous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leave deciduous trees
Evergreen forest land Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees
Mixed forest land Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved decidous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees
Forest Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved decidous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees
Upland forest Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved decidous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved deciduous trees
Forest restoration Mature
(9" dis. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved decidous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of live needle-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved deciduous trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead broad-leaved evergreen trees
Tree canopy, large branches of dead needle-leaved evergreen trees

Comments on breed-guilding:
Cooper's hawk prefers mature broad-leaved forests for nesting *04*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Insecta Adult
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Adult
Sauria (lizards, skinks, iguana) Adult
Serpentes (snakes) Adult
Mammals Adult
Didelphidae (opossum) Adult
Chiroptera (bats) Adult
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Juvenile
Leporidae (rabbits, hares) Adult
Sciuridae (squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, prairie dogs) Adult
Cricetidae Adult
Birds Juvenile
Birds Adult
Ardeidae (herons, bitterns) Adult
Anatidae (swans, geese, ducks) Juvenile
Falconiformes Juvenile
Phasianidae (pheasants, quail) Adult
Scolopacidae (curlews, sandpipers, snipes) Adult
Columbidae (pigeons, doves) Adult
Strigidae (owls) Adult
Picidae (woodpeckers) Adult
Passeriformes Adult
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Juvenile
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Adult
Sittidae (nuthatches) Adult
Mimidae (mockingbirds, thrashers) Adult
Muscicapidae (old world warblers & flycatchers, gnatcatchers) Adult
Vireonidae (vireos) Adult
Parulinae (warblers) Adult
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) Adult
Icterinae (blackbirds, orioles, meadowlarks) Adult
Passeridae (house sparrows) Adult
Important:
Birds Juvenile
Birds Adult
Passeriformes Adult
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Juvenile
Corvidae (jays, magpies, crows) Adult
Muscicapidae (old world warblers & flycatchers, gnatcatchers) Adult
Emberizinae (sparrows, longspurs) Adult
Icterinae (blackbirds, orioles, meadowlarks) Adult
Passeridae (house sparrows) Adult
Juvenile:
Insecta Adult
Orthoptera Adult
Sauria Adult
Serpentes Adult
Mammals Adult
Didelphidae Adult
Leporidae Juvenile
Leporidae Adult
Sciuridae Adult
Cricetidae Adult
Birds Juvenile
Birds Adult
Ardeidae Adult
Anatidae Juvenile
Falconiformes Adult
Phasianidae Adult
Scolopacidae Adult
Columbidae Adult
Strigidae Adult
Picidae Adult
Passeriformes Adult
Corvidae Juvenile
Corvidae Adult
Sittidae Adult
Mimidae Adult
Muscicapidae Adult
Vireonidae Adult
Parulinae Adult
Emberizinae Adult
Icterinae Adult
Passeridae Adult
Adult:
Insecta Adult
Orthoptera Adult
Salientia Adult
Sauria Adult
Serpentes Adult
Mammals Adult
Didelphidae Adult
Chiroptera Adult
Leporidae Juvenile
Leporidae Adult
Sciuridae Adult
Cricetidae Adult
Birds Juvenile
Birds Adult
Ardeidae Adult
Anatidae Juvenile
Falconiformes Adult
Phasianidae Adult
Scolopacidae Adult
Columbidae Adult
Strigidae Adult
Picidae Adult
Passeriformes Adult
Corvidae Juvenile
Corvidae Adult
Sittidae Adult
Mimidae Adult
Muscicapidae Adult
Vireonidae Adult
Parulinae Adult
Emberizinae Adult
Icterinae Adult
Passeridae Adult

Comments on food habits: 
General: Cooper's hawk prefers medium-sized birds: starlings, robins, blackbirds, flickers, etc. *04*. Also other bird species, mammals, and sometimes lizards, amphibians and large insects *04*. Birds are plucked before eaten.
Juvenile: Young are fed from same prey items partly consumed by parents *04*. Birds are most important; also mammals brought to nest *04*. In west, lizards were prey items.
Adult: See general food habits comments.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Aquatic habitats: Vegetated streambank
  • Ecotones:
    • Woodland/crop fields
    • Woodland/old fields
    • Woodland/grassland
    • Crop field/water
    • Crop field/grassland
  • Pastures: See comments
  • Grassland: See comments
  • Meadows: See comments
  • Old fields: See comments
  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Abandoned fields
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest
    • Stable prairie/grassland
    • Subclimax grassland
    • Climax grassland
  • Human associations: Zoos
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitats: Vegetated streambank
  • Ecotones:
    • Woodland/crop fields
    • Woodland/old fields
    • Woodland/grassland
    • Crop field/water
    • Crop field/grassland
  • Pastures: See comments
  • Grassland: See comments
  • Meadows: See comments
  • Old fields: See comments
  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Abandoned fields
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest
    • Stable prairie/grassland
    • Subclimax grassland
    • Climax grassland
  • Human associations: Zoos

Resting juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitats: Vegetated streambank
  • Ecotones:
    • Woodland/crop fields
    • Woodland/old fields
    • Woodland/grassland
    • Crop field/water
    • Crop field/grassland
  • Pastures: See comments
  • Grassland: See comments
  • Meadows: See comments
  • Old fields: See comments
  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Abandoned fields
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest
    • Stable prairie/grassland
    • Subclimax grassland
    • Climax grassland
  • Human associations: Zoos

Feeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: Vegetated streambank
  • Ecotones:
    • Woodland/crop fields
    • Woodland/old fields
    • Woodland/grassland
    • Crop field/water
    • Crop field/grassland
  • Pastures: See comments
  • Grassland: See comments
  • Meadows: See comments
  • Old fields: See comments
  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Abandoned fields
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest
    • Stable prairie/grassland
    • Subclimax grassland
    • Climax grassland
  • Human associations: Zoos

Resting adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: Vegetated streambank
  • Ecotones:
    • Woodland/crop fields
    • Woodland/old fields
    • Woodland/grassland
    • Crop field/water
    • Crop field/grassland
  • Pastures: See comments
  • Grassland: See comments
  • Meadows: See comments
  • Old fields: See comments
  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Abandoned fields
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest
    • Stable prairie/grassland
    • Subclimax grassland
    • Climax grassland
  • Human associations: Zoos

Breeding adult:

  • Aquatic habitats: Vegetated streambank
  • Ecotones:
    • Woodland/crop fields
    • Woodland/old fields
    • Woodland/grassland
    • Crop field/water
    • Crop field/grassland
  • Pastures: See comments
  • Grassland: See comments
  • Meadows: See comments
  • Old fields: See comments
  • Coniferous forest: See comments
  • Hardwood forest: See comments
  • Overstem trees - ave. ht.: See comments
  • Vegetation successional stage:
    • Abandoned fields
    • Stable forest
    • Subclimax forest
    • Climax forest
    • Stable prairie/grassland
    • Subclimax grassland
    • Climax grassland
  • Human associations: Zoos

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Cooper's hawks inhabit forests with clearings *03,08,18*. Feeding is done in woods or over fields near cover. Mature broadleaved forests are preferred for nesting but conifers may be preferred for roosting *04*.
Feeding juvenile: Nestlings are fed in the nest. Upon fledging, they are fed in woods, edges and later adopt hunting method of adults *04*.
Resting juvenile: Juveniles are known to rest and sun on nest and are assumed to adopt adult roosting habits when fledged *00,04*.
Feeding adult: Adults hunt from inconspicuous perches in woodlands or over fields from woodland edges *04*.
Resting adult: Adults are known to roost in conifers.
Breeding adult: Typically, nests are in tall trees *18*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01*

Physical description: Long legs, long rounded tail, and short rounded wings. Sharp-shinned hawk is similar, but smaller with a square tail. Slate gray above, white below with rufous barrings *03,04*. Eye color changes from yellow in a bird's first year (immature) to red by third or fourth year *04*. Juveniles brownish black above, whitish with brown streaks below, moulting to adult plumage when 1 year old *08*. Females in subadult plumage have raised young *22*. Strong sexual dimorphism: ave. agt. of males 380 gm., females 561 gm *02*. Male cooper's hawk and female sharp-shinned may be so similar in size and tail shape as to make identification uncertain *03*.

Reproduction: Nesting territory selection begins perhaps in early apr. The male first defends a small area (100 in in diameter in one nesting woods). If a female enters this space, courtship flights commence *04,05*. The male selects the nest site and does most of the construction; about 2 wks. is required *04*. The nest is made of sticks and twigs and lined with pieces of bark, in the crotch of a deciduous tree or against the trunk of a conifer on a limb, usually 20-60 ft. high *06*. A pair may nest repeatedly in the same woods, but seldom reuse old nests. However, nests may be built upon crow, squirrel or woodrat nests *04*. Copulation takes place during nest- building and egg-laying *04,08*. Eggs are laid at 2 d. intervals, usually 4-5, occasionally 3 or 6 *04,07*. Incubation, mostly by the female, lasts 35-36 d. *04,06,08*; begins before clutch is complete *04,06*. Male provides food for female, incubating while she feeds *04,08*. A "plucking post" is used during nesting season; here, the adults pluck and dismember prey near the nest before feeding it to the young *08*. Hatchlings are covered with white down and begin moult to first juvenile plumage in about 2 wks. *08,09*. Female is quite aggressive at nest and seldom leaves it until hatchlings are about 3 wk. old; then she assists in hunting and is often absent, and male will bring food to nest *04*. Males fledge in about 30 d., Females 34 d. *04,08*. Parents continue to feed fledgings for as long as 7 wk. While they learn to hunt *08*. Parents may or may not teach young to hunt. Adults have been observed releasing live birds for young to catch *07* while another study *10* suggests the young hawks learned on their own.

Behavior: The cooper's hawk hunts from perches, attacking its prey (mostly birds) from a low, concealed flight *08,09*. During nesting season, males hunt away from the nest, usually .5-2 mil. away. Small birds normally preyed upon may nest near the hawk's nest *04*. Nest sites may include 6 ha., with nesting density of 1 pair/2000 ha in one study *11*. Cooper's hawks will normally nest no closer than 1.5 mi. from each other or from a sharp-shinned hawk's nest *04,05*. Migratory, but generally remaining in the southern states in winter (though perhaps as far south as central america) and nesting in northern states and southern canada *04,09*.

Limiting factors: Blowflies, louse flies and bird lice are common parasites. Several diseases are also found in Cooper's hawks. None of these seem to be limiting factors *08,15*. Adults are seldom preyed upon. Raccoons can be serious nest predators. Birds - e.g. crows and jays - may eat eggs. Great horned owls may take young birds *08*. Harsh winters may reduce populations *07*. Shooting is a major cause of mortality; this may be on the decline *07,13*. Organochlorine pesticides cause eggshell thinning that can result in egg breakage. Concentrations of DDE in eggs reported in 1973 in the eastern U.S. reached levels that caused frequent egg breakage *07*

Population parameters: Several studies report high nesting success: 97% of nests containing 1 or more eggs; 84-87% of nests fledging 1 or more young, with 2.8-2.9 young/clutch *07*. Mortality after fledging is quite high. First year mortality in the eastern U.S. was estimated to be 83% up to 1940 and 78% after 1940, and 44% and 34% for older birds. There has been a steady long term decline in numbers of cooper's hawks in the U.S., attributed to shooting in earlier years and, recently, organochlorine poisoning *07,08*. Annual population declines were estimated at 13-25% from 1929 to the 1950's *07*. Some populations now have reproductive rates equal to pre-DDT times *07*. In the southwest populations appear to be stable *23*. By 1965, populations were reported to be less than 10% of their former sizes *13*. Longevity, 7 1/2 yr. in the wild *14*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural ecological succession
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Selection method of silviculture
  • Thinning operations in forest areas
  • Developing/maintaining forest openings
  • Deferred cutting of forest areas
  • Deferring for old growth in forest areas

Adverse:

  • Strip mining
  • Applying pesticides
  • Applying insecticides
  • Cutting and deforestation
  • Application of pesticides
  • Application of insecticides

Comments on management practices: United states - Mexico Migratory Bird Treaty of 10 March 1972 protects Cooper's hawks *08*. See life history. Major losses have historically been from shooting and organochlorine poisoning. Both of these may be declining. Large trees are required for nesting *18*. Cooper's hawk is also protected under Illinois Endangered Species Act, 1972 *18* and Illinois Wildlife Code, 1971 *24*.


REFERENCES

0. BUTCHER, M.K. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX.

2. SNYDER, N.F.R. AND J.W. WILEY. 1976. SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN HAWKS AND OWLS OF NORTH AMERICA. ORNITH. MONOGR. NO. 20.

3. PETERSON, R. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS. 4 ED. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 384 P.

4. BROWN, L. AND D. AMADON. 1968. EAGLES, HAWKS AND FALCONS OF THE WORLD. MCGRAW HILL, NEW YORK. 945 P.

5. CRAIGHEAD, J.J. AND F.C. CRAIGHEAD, JR. 1956. HAWKS, OWLS AND WILDLIFE. THE STACKPOLE CO., HARRISBURG, PA. 443 P.

6. HARRISON, H.H. 1975. A FIELD GUIDE TO BIRDS' NESTS. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 257 P.

7. NEWTON, I. 1979. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF RAPTORS. BUTEO BOOKS, VERMILLION, SD. 399 P.

8. EVANS, D.L. 1982. STATUS REPORT ON TWELVE RAPTORS. U.S.D.I. FISH AND WILDL. SERV. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REP. WILDL. NO. 238.

9. BENT, A.C. 1937. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS OF PREY. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 167.

10. FITCH, H.S., B. GLADING AND V. HOUSE. 1946. OBSERVATIONS ON COOPER HAWK NESTING AND PREDATION. CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 32(3):144-154.

11. REYNOLDS, R.T. AND H.W. WIGHT. 1978. DISTRIBUTION DENSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF ACCIPITER HAWKS BREEDING IN OREGON. WILSON BULL. 90(2):182-196.

12. HENNY, C.J. AND H.M. WIGHT. 1972. POPULATION ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: RED-TAILED AND COOPER'S HAWKS. PAGES 229-250 IN POPULATION ECOLOGY OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. U.S. FISH WILDL. SERV. WILDL. RES. REP. 2. 278 P.

13. PETERSON, R.T. 1969. THE CONTAMINATION OF FOOD CHAINS. PP. 529-534 IN J.J. HICKEY, ED. PEREGRINE FALCON POPULATIONS: THEIR BIOLOGY AND DECLINE. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN PRESS, MADISON. 596 P.

14. KENNARD, J.K. 1975. LONGEVITY RECORDS OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. BIRD- BANDING 46(1):55-73.

15. SARGENT, W.D. 1938. NEST PARASITISM OF HAWKS. AUK 55(1):82-84.

16. SCHRIVER, E.C. 1969. THE STATUS OF COOPER'S HAWKS IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. PP. 356-359 IN J.J. HICKEY, ED. PEREGRINE FALCON POPULATIONS: THEIR BIOLOGY AND DECLINE. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN PRESS, MADISON. 596 P.

17. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1982. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT AUK 99(3).

18. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERETEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 189 P.

19. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

20. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1957. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION, BALTIMORE, MD. 691 P.

21. FISHER, A.K. 1893. THE HAWKS AND OWLS OF THE UNITED STATES IN THEIR RELATION TO AGRICULTURE. U.S.D.A. DIV. ORNITH. MAMM. BULL. NO. 3.

22. MENG, H. 1951. THE COOPER'S HAWK. PH.D. THESIS. CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, NEW YORK. IN T. NEWTON. 1979. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF RAPTORS. BUTEO BOOKS. VERMILLION, S.D. 399 P.

23. SNYDER, H.A. 1973. CURRENT RESEARCH ON ACCIPITERS. IN D.L. EVANS. 1982. STATUS REPORT ON TWELVE RAPTORS. U.S.D.I. FISH. WILDL. SERV. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REP.-WILDL. NO. 238.

24. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 PP.

 


 

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