Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

American black duck
Anas rubipres

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Anseriformes
  • Family: Anatidae
  • Genus: Anas
  • Species: Anas rubipres
  • Authority: Brewster

Comments on taxonomy:
Other names: black; balckjack; black mallard; brown duck; canard noir, dusky duck; english duck; redleg; summer black duck; for complete list see Terres 1980 *05*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Fairly common migrant and winter resident. Rare summer resident *01*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
The american black duck is protected by the Illinois wildlife code of 1971 *03* and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 *04*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
Pin oak - sweetgum Young tree (1-9" dia.)
Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Old growth (trees >100 yrs. old)
Unknown All

Associated tree species: No records.

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Flat Mud Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine Unknown perennial Emergent vegetation Nonpersistent Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Can be found in creeks, ponds, freshwater and saltwater marshes, and swamps of the coastal belt; breeds in marine and brackish habitat backed by freshwater marshes, especially near the border of wooded areas *05*; also found extensively in woods *06*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Cropland and pasture Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Deciduous forest land Young tree (1-9" dia.)
Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Evergreen forest land Young tree (1-9" dia.)
Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Mixed forest land Young tree (1-9" dia.)
Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Streams and canals Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Lakes Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Reservoirs Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Bays and estuaries Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Forested wetland Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Nonforested wetland Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All

Species-habitat interrelations: Found in creeks, ponds, freshwater and saltwater marshes, and swamps of the coastal belt; breeds in marine and brackish habitat backed by freshwater marshes, especially near the border of wooded areas *05*. Nest extensively in woods *06*; can also be found breeding in creeks, ponds, freshwater and saltwater marshes, and swamps of the coastal belt *05*. Usually feeds in shallow waters *05*. Species occurs in open pin oak timber with a productive mast *37*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Cropland and pasture Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Forest land Young tree (1-9" dia.)
Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Terrestrial surface-leaves, twigs, flowers, fruits, seeds of deciduous trees
Terrestrial surface-leaves, twigs, fruits, seeds of evergreen trees
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of forbs
Water Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All Water bottom-unconsolidated, rooted vascular plants
Water bottom-aquatic bed, rooted vascular plants
Water column-rooted vascular plants
Water surface-floating vascular plants
Water surface-rooted herbaceous plants through surface
Water bottom-consolidated, rooted vascular plants
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, arthropods
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, fish
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, amphibians
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, arthropods
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, fish
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, fish
Water bottom-aquatic bed, amphibians
Water column- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- fish
Water surface- amphibians
Wetland Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All Water bottom-unconsolidated, rooted vascular plants
Water bottom-aquatic bed, rooted vascular plants
Water column-rooted vascular plants
Water surface-floating vascular plants
Water surface-rooted herbaceous plants through surface
Water bottom-consolidated, rooted vascular plants
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, arthropods
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, fish
Water bottom-consolidated bottom, amphibians
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, arthropods
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, fish
Water bottom-unconsolidated bottom, amphibians
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, fish
Water bottom-aquatic bed, amphibians
Water column- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- fish
Water column- amphibians
Water surface- arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- fish
Water surface- amphibians

Comments on feed-guilding:
Usually feeds in shallows, tips up to reach bottom, probes in mud *05*. Foraging sites: ground, water, herbacious vegetation, surface of water. Forages by: probing, dabbling, diving, gleaning, filtering.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Forested wetland
Nonforested wetland
Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) Spring/summer Terrestrial surface
Terrestrial surface, herbaceous litter
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Terrestrial surface, marshy areas with hydrophytes but not hydric soils
Surface of water column-river/lake/marsh, unconsolidated rooted herbaceous plants
Forest land Young tree (1-9" dia.)
Mature (9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Terrestrial surface
Terrestrial surface, herbaceous litter
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Terrestrial surface, marshy areas with hydrophytes but not hydric soils
Surface of water column-river/lake/marsh, unconsolidated rooted herbaceous plants

Comments on breed-guilding:
Nest built most extensively in woods, less so in fields and marshes; constructed from adjacent material (leaves, grass, twigs, pine needles) in shallow basins; nest site usually covered by honeysuckle, poison ivy, brush, or grasses *06*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Plants Fruit/seeds (see comments)
Tracheophyta (vascular plants) Fruit/seeds
Taxodium (baldcypress) Fruit/seeds
Dicotyledonae (dicots) Fruit/seeds
Fagaceae (beech, oak) Fruit/seeds
Rosaceae (rose, cherry, plum, apple) Fruit/seeds
Fabaceae (pulses, pea) Unknown
Nyssaceae (tupelo) Fruit/seeds
Ericaceae (heath, blueberry, wintergreen) Fruit/seeds
Polygonaceae (buckwheat, rhubarb) Unknown
Nymphaeaceae (water lily, lotus) Unknown
Asteraceae (aster) Unknown
Monocotyledonae (monocots) Fruit/seeds
Hydrocharitaceae (tape grass, water weed) Roots, buds, fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): corn, rice, wheat, barley Fruit/seeds
Sparganiaceae (bur-reed) Flower
Najadaceae (naiad) Unknown
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Adult
Annelida: Hirudnea (leeches) Adult
Mollusca Adult
Mollusca: Bivalvia (bivalves) Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Adult
Crustaceans Adult
Insecta Larva, adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Larva, adult
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva, adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva, adult
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva, adult
Clupeiformes (herrings) Unknown
Amphibians Juvenile, adult
Caudata (salamanders,newts,mudpuppies,sirens,hellbenders) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile, adult
Mammals See comments
Juvenile:
Plants See comments
Najadaceae (naiad) Unknown
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Unknown
Mollusca Adult, unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Adult
Insecta Adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Adult
Coleoptera (beetles) Adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Adult
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Adult
Adult:
Plants Fruit/seeds (see comments)
Tracheophyta (vascular plants) Fruit/seeds
Taxodium (baldcypress) Fruit/seeds
Dicotyledonae (dicots) Fruit/seeds
Fagaceae (beech, oak) Fruit/seeds
Rosaceae (rose, cherry, plum, apple) Fruit/seeds
Fabaceae (pulses, pea) Unknown
Nyssaceae (tupelo) Fruit/seeds
Ericaceae (heath, blueberry, wintergreen) Fruit/seeds
Polygonaceae (buckwheat, rhubarb) Unknown
Nymphaeaceae (water lily, lotus) Unknown
Asteraceae (aster) Unknown
Monocotyledonae (monocots) Fruit/seeds
Hydrocharitaceae (tape grass, water weed) Roots, buds, fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass): corn, rice, wheat, barley Fruit/seeds
Sparganiaceae (bur-reed) Flower
Najadaceae (naiad) Unknown
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Adult
Annelida: Hirudnea (leeches) Adult
Mollusca Adult
Mollusca: Bivalvia (bivalves) Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Adult
Crustaceans Adult
Insecta Larva, adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Larva, adult
Hemiptera Unknown
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva, adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva, adult
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva, adult
Clupeiformes (herrings) Unknown
Amphibians Juvenile, adult
Caudata (salamanders,newts,mudpuppies,sirens,hellbenders) Adult
Salientia (frogs, toads) Juvenile, adult
Mammals See comments

Comments on food habits: 
General: Other plant foods include: Scirpu subterminalis, S. torreyi, Sparganium sp., Zizania aquatica, Potamogeton natans, P. pusillus, P. ephiydry *07*; will eat small mammals *05*; usually feeds in shallow waters where it can reach bottom by tipping up tail and probing in mud with bill; eats submerged plants: pondweeds, wild celery, and grasses; aquatic insects and their larvae, salamander, small frogs, tadpoles, toads, small mammals, leeches, worms, and snails in the summer; in the fall eats wild berries, grains, and acorns; in winter feeds in salt marshes, at night, on mollusks and crustaceans *05*. In the late fall and winter waste grains are important food sources. Shad frozen in ice are eaten when the ice melts *37,38,39*.
Juvenile: Young feed themselves soon after hatching; feed primarily on insects at first then switch to a predominantly plant food diet *07,09*; other plant foods include: Najadacea, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae *07*; 2/3 of young diet is animal, especially insect larvae, nest is snails and clams *07*.
Adult: See [FH], general food habits.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Substrate: mud or silt
  • Substrate: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: intermittently exposed
  • Water level: semipermanently flooded
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: temporarily flooded
  • Water level: intermittently flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water level: reservoir tailwater
  • Water level: steady-state reservoir levels
  • Water level: flucuating reservoir levels
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: coastal marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: seasonal wet depressions
  • Aquatic habitats: silt bottom streams
  • Aquatic habitats: detritus bottom streams
  • Aquatic habitats: pool areas
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: pond pioneer aquatic vegetation
  • Vegetation successional stage: vegetation-choked pond
  • Human associations: farm ponds
  • Human associations: state and county parks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries
  • Unknown

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding adult:

  • Substrate: mud or silt
  • Substrate: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: intermittently exposed
  • Water level: semipermanently flooded
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: temporarily flooded
  • Water level: intermittently flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water level: reservoir tailwater
  • Water level: steady-state reservoir levels
  • Water level: flucuating reservoir levels
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: saltwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: coastal marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp, general
  • Aquatic habitats: cypress swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: pond pioneer aquatic vegetation
  • Vegetation successional stage: vegetation-choked pond
  • Human associations: farm ponds
  • Human associations: state and county parks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries
  • Unknown

Resting adult:

  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: intermittently exposed
  • Water level: semipermanently flooded
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: temporarily flooded
  • Water level: intermittently flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water level: reservoir tailwater
  • Water level: steady-state reservoir levels
  • Water level: flucuating reservoir levels
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: seasonal wet depressions
  • Aquatic habitats: silt bottom streams
  • Aquatic habitats: detritus bottom streams
  • Aquatic habitats: pool areas
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: woodland/water
  • Ecotones: crop field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Agricultural crops: see comments
  • Human associations: farm ponds
  • Human associations: state and county parks
  • Human associations: wildlife refuges/sanctuaries

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Found in marine and brackish habitat backed by freshwater marshes near the border of wooded areas *05*; nest extensively in woods *06*; can also be found breeding in creeks, ponds, freshwater and saltwater marshes, and swamps of the coastal belt; is strongly attached to wintering places *05*.
Feeding juvenile: See [JF] juvenile food habits.
Feeding adult: Usually feeds in shallow waters where it can reach bottom by tipping up tail and probing in mud with bill; in winter feeds in salt marshes, at night, on molluscs and crustaceans *05*. Species requires a mud/ silt bottom when probing in shallow water *37,39*. Vegetation should be interspersed throughout the water *37*. Bottomlands & flatlands must be flooded *37*. Species will feed in wheat, corn, milo, soybean and rice fields *37,39,40,43*.
Resting adult: Bottomlands and flatlands must be flooded *37*. Species will rest in wheat, corn, milo, soybeans and rice fields *37,39,40,43*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01*.

Physical description: Sexes similar, uniformly dark brown; paler yellow-brown head and neck finely streaked; purple speculum bordered with black; in flight, overall dark color and white underwing linings; feet may be brown to red; bill is dull green in females, and birght yellow in males *05*; males in eclipse lack the buff u-shaped marking on breast and side feathers; females tend to have more v- shaped markings; males have bright orange-red legs, while females are olive color; juveniles resemble adults, but are more heavily streaked on the breast and underparts *08*; measurement folded wing - males 265-292 mm, females, 245-275 mm; culmen - males, 52-58 mm, females, 45-53 mm; weight - adult males average 1330 g, females average 1160 g *08*.

Reproduction: Eggs are laid from April-June; clutch size usually ranges from 9-10 eggs *05*; clutch size decreases as the season progresses *08*; incubation is performed by the female alone, generally ranges from 26-28 days *05,08*; species begins to form pair bonds in late summer, reaches a peak just before height of breeding season in early April; in spring males defend a territory for each clutch; male remains nearby while female builds nest, gradually deserting his mate during incubation period *06*; females deposit eggs in nest at a rate of about 1 per day, with most laying occurring fairly early in the morning, and often within 2 hours after sunrise *08*.

Behavior: Males defend a territory for each clutch *06*; nesting densities vary greatly from 0.6-15.2 nests per acre *06*; the higher nesting densities are artifacts of island nesting; typical nesting density of high quality, non-island breeding habitat is 1 pair/20 acres *08*; nest bult most extensively in woods, less so in fields and marshes; constructed from adjacent material (leaves, grass, twigs, pine needles) in shallow basins; nest site usually covered by honeysuckle, poison ivy, brush, or grasses; spacing between nest is determined by available cover *06*; female rarely leaves nest during last few days prior to hatching; pipping usually takes about 24-30 hours *08*; young born in a precocial state; female leads young to water after hatching, will remain with brood until fledging period, about 68 days *05*; species is closely related to mallards; interaction has apparently risen in recent years, as mallards have moved increasingly eastward as wintering and breeding birds; current evidence indicates that hybridization between them will continue to increase *08*.

Limiting factors: External parasites *11*; rows prey on young and eggs *08*. animal plant = "Cestoda; Aploparaksis furcigera; Diorchis bulbodes; Dicranotaenia coronula; Echinocotyle rosseteri; Hymenolepis abortiva; H. collaris; H. hopkinsi; H. paracompresa; H. parvula; H. rauschi; Fimbriaria fasciolaris; Sobolevicanthus filumferenus; S. gracilis; Anomotaenia ciliata; Digenea: Echinostoma revolutum; Echinoparyphium recurvatum; Hypderaeum concideum; Apatemon gracilis; Cotylurus platycephalus; Psilochasmus oxyurus; Notocotylus attenuatus; Prosthogonimus cuneatus; Zygocotyle lunata; Leuchochloridiomorpha constantiae; Corynosoma constrictum; Polymorphus minutus; Nemotoda; Capillaria sp. *11*". C. animal plant "diseases and parasites: general ref. *15,16*; bacterial: cholera *17,18,19,20*; viral: duck plague *21,22,23,24*; influenza *25*; Newcastle *26*; ortho- and paramyxovirus *27*; Helminths: Acanthocephala *11,28*; Cestodes *11,29*; Digenea *11,28,29, 30*; ematodes *11,28,31*; trematodes *32*; protozoan: blood parasites *10,12,13,33,34,35*; ectoparasites *14*."

Population parameters: Species brood size averages about 8 ducklings for broods under 2 weeks of age, an additional average of 1.7 ducklings are lost during the first 6 weeks of life; total juvenile mortality rate is estimated to be 64.9%; adult mortality rate is 40%, 38% for males and 47% for females *08*; population levels reported declining between 1955 and mid-1960's *05*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Controlling sedimentation
  • Controlling pollution in aquatic habitats
  • Controlling water levels
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Controlling aquatic plants
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining mudflats
  • Burning of wetlands to maintain successional stages
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining streamside vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • No-till farming
  • Controlled grazing of domestic livestock
  • Limiting access of livestock to banks and water
  • Controlling wind and water erosion
  • Seeding aquatic plants
  • Developing and maintaining brush or slash piles in forests
  • Periodic thinning of mast producing trees to maintain mast production
  • Regulating harvest of animal being described
  • Regulating hunting
  • Providing artificial nesting and roosting sites (platforms, nest boxes, cones, baskets, burro)

Adverse:

  • Navigational improvements such as channelization and locks and dams
  • Dredging
  • Draining wetlands
  • Clean farming
  • Applying pesticide on agricultural land
  • Applying herbicide
  • Applying insecticide
  • Application of pesticides
  • Application of insecticides

Existing:

  • Regulating harvest of animal being described
  • Regulating hunting

Comments on management practices:
Need freedom from disturbance and control of pesticides *09*; have interspersed nesting cover; available nesting cover early in the season; minimize grazing; construct small brush piles; offshore duck blinds for nesting; burning areas that are frequently flooded; human disturbance should be minimized *06*. The four most important factors affecting the abundance of duck food plants in bottomland lakes of the Ill. River are: 1. Fluctuating water levels, 2. Turbidity, 3. Water depth, 4. Competition by other plants that provide little or no duck food. Controlled fluctuations of water levels can result in highly productive food if they occur within the optimum 120 day summer growing period. Consider the period June 15 - Oct. 12 as the most favorable season for developing marsh, aquatic and moist-soil plants. An earlier period would be better still for aquatics, but the earlier the date, the less likely its low water, because of spring floods. The minimum period of dewatering within which moist-soil plants can produce mature seeds (although not at top yields) is 70 days. Impoundments made by levee construction are used to develop moist- soil veg. pumps are frequently employed to assist in the dewatering & reflowing of impounded wetlands. Mudflats created by dewatering should be exposed for 70-90 days between July 15 & Oct. 15 exposing mudflats can be accomplished by below-normal river levels or pumping. In flat basined lakes of the Ill. River valley, slight rises in fall water levels are advantageous in inundating moist-soil plant beds so that their seeds can be used by ducks. In the fall, if water levels are raised too high, the moist-soil plant beds are covered too deeply for dabbling ducks to use the seed resources effectively. Uncontrolled water fluctuations result in minimal development of aquatic, marsh & moist-soil plants. It is important that small levees isolate the managed unit from the river to minimize minor river fluctuations & impound waters for inundating moist-soil plant beds after Oct. 1. The more complete the separation of backwater areas from the river, the better the development of waterfowl food plants. Unwanted weed species can be controlled by brief reflooding. Most moist-soil plants will perish if completely inundated with water. However after germination and early growth on mudflats, some species continue to grow with the basal part of their stems in water. Rice cutgrass and Walter's millet are good examples of this type of plant. Stream bank erosion also merits attention. Removal of trees and other woody vegetation from stream banks has greatly accelerated soil loss. A protective green belt is needed along tributary stream banks to reduce sediment. Turbidity stems from sedimentation, which in turn alters water depth and may encourage growth of weed species. Adoption of minimum tillage practices on slopes devoted to row crops should take place. Slopes that erode severly should be restricted to small grain, hay crops, or permanent pastures. Managers should note, that the length of time a duck pauses in fall migration depends on: 1. Weather conditions, 2. Shooting pressure & other disturbances & 3. Availability of food *06*.

 


REFERENCES

0. VINARDI, T.A. 1000K FOXRIDGE, BLACKSBURG, VA 24060 AND GOLDBECK, J.B. 1400A TERRACEVIEW BLACKSBURG, VA 24060 AND MISSOURI DEPT. OF CONSERVATION.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1975. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM POP. SCI. SERIES. VOL. IX. 156 PP.

3. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS CH. 61. WILDLIFE ART II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES 1979. WEST PUBL. CO. ST. PAUL, MN. 120 PP.

4. U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE & FISHERIES CHAPTER 1 PP. 11-18 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FED. REGISTER GENERAL SERVICES ADMIN. OCT. 1.

5. TERRES, J.K. 1980. THE AUDUBON SOCIETY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. A.A. KNOPF. NY. 1109 PP.

6. STOTTS, U.D. AND D.E. DAVIS. 1960. THE BLACK DUCK IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY OF MARYLAND: BREEDING BEHAVIOR AND BIOLOGY. CHESAPEAKE SCI. 1: 127-154.

7. MENDALL, H.L. 1949. FOOD HABITS IN RELATION TO BLACK DUCK MANAGEMENT IN MAINE. J. WILDL. MANAGE. 13:64-101.

8. HARTMAN, F.E. 1963. ESTUARINE WINTERING HABITAT FOR BLACK DUCKS. J. WILDL. MANAGE. 27:339-347.

9. PALMER, R.S. 1976. HANDBOOK OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. VOL. II. YALE UNIV. PRESS, NEW HAVEN, CONN.

10. LEVINE, N.D. AND G.R. CAMPBELL. 1971. CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF HAEMOPROTEUS. J. PROTOZOOL 18:475-484.

11. MCLAUGHLIN. J.D. AND M.D.B. BURT. 1979. A SURVEY OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHS OF WATERFOWL FROM NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA. CAN. J. ZOOL. 57: 801-807.

12. WILLIAMS, N.A. AND G.F. BENNETT. 1978. HEMATOZOA OF SOME BIRDS OF NEW JERSEY AND MARYLAND. CAN. J. ZOOL. 56:596-603.

13. WILLIAMS, N.A. AND G.F. BENNETT. 1980. AVIAN HAEMOPRATEIDAE. 13. THE HAEMOPROTEIDS OF DUCKS AND GEESE (ANATIDAE) CAN. J. ZOOL. 58(1):88-93.

14. PETERS; H.S. 1936. A LIST OF EXTERNAL PARASITES FROM BIRDS OF THE EASTERN PART OF THE U.S. BIRD BANDING 7:9-27.

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21. BURGESS, E.C., ET AL. 1979. DUCK PLAGUE: A CARRIER STATE IN WATER FOWL. AVIAN DIS. 23(4):940-949.

22. LEIBOVITZ, L. 1968. PROGRESS REPORT: DUCK PLAGUE SURVEILLANCE OF AMERICAN ANSERIFORMES. BULL. WILDL. DIS. ASSOC. 4:87-91.

23. LEIBOVITZ, L. 1971. DUCK PLAGUE PP. 22-23. DAVIS, J.W. EDITOR. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. IOWA STATE UNIV., AMES, IOWA.

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25. HINSHAW, V.S., R.A. BANKOWSKI, AND J.K. ROSENBERGER. 1978. INFLUENZA VIRUSES RELATED TO A SHEARWATER AUSTRALIA 1772 (HAV6 NAV5) IN DOMESTIC AND FERAL BIRDS. AVIAN DIS. 22:24-31.

26. VICKERS, M.L. & R.P. HANSON. 1982. CHARACTERIZATION OF ISOLATES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM MIGRATORY BIRDS AND TURKEYS. AVIAN DIS. 26(1):127-133.

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28. MAHONEY, S.P. AND W. THRELFALL. 1978. DIGINEA, NEMATODA, AND ACANTHOCEPHALA OF TWO SPECIES OF DUCKS FROM ONTARIO AND E. CANADA. CAN. J. ZOOL. 56(3):436-439.

29. MCLAUGHLIN, J.D. AND M.D.B. BURT. 1979. STUDIES ON THE HYMENOLEPID CESTODES OF WATERFOWL FROM NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA. CAN. J. ZOOL. 57(1): 34-79.

30. SCOTT, M.E., ET AL. 1980. PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF TYPHLOCOELUM CUCUMERIUM (DIGENEA) IN WILD ANATIDS OF QUEBEC, CANADA. J. WILDL. DIS. 16(1):71-75.

31. WEHR, E.E. 1971. NEMATODES. PP. 185-233. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. IOWA STATE UNIV. AMES, IOWA.

32. VANDEVASSE, F.J. 1980. A REVIEW OF THE GENUS DENDRITOBILHARZIA SKRJABEN AND ZAKHAROW 1920 (TREMATODA - SCHISTOSOMATIDAE) PARASITOL. 66(5):814-822.

33. BENNETT, G.F. 1972. BLOOD PARASITES OF SOME BIRDS FROM LABRADOR. CAN. J. ZOOL. 50:353-356.

34. BENNET, G.F. AND J.G. INGER. 1972. BLOOD PARASITES OF GAMEBIRDS FROM INSULAR NEWFOUNDLAND. CAN. J. ZOOL. 50:705-706.

35. COOK, R.S. 1971. HAEMOPROTEUS KRUSE 1890. PAGES 300-308 INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF WILD BIRDS. DAVIS, J.W., R.C. ANDERSON, L. KARSTAD AND D.O. TRAINER, EDS. THE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY, AMES, IOWA.

36. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERVATION. 1984. 1984 WATERFOWL HUNTING INFORMATION. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. SPRINGFIELD, IL. PAMPHLET.

37. UNPB. HUMBERG, DALE. MO. DEPT. CONSERVATION. 1110 COLLEGE AVE., COLUMBIA, MO 65201 (314)449-3761.

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43. JOHNSGARD, PAUL A. 1975. WATERFOWL OF N. AMERICA. INDIANA UNIV. PRESS. BLOOMINGTON, IN. 575 PP.

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45. BELLROSE, F.C., FRED L. PAVEGLIO & DONALD W. STEFFECK. 1979. WATERFOWL POPULATIONS & THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF THE IL. RIVER VALLEY. IL. NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY BULLETIN. VOL. 32. ART. 1. 54 PP.

46. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1983. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 6TH ED. ALLEN PRESS INC. LAWRENCE, KN. 877 PP.

 


 

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