Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Common Moorhen
Gallinula chloropus

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Gruiformes
  • Family: Rallidae
  • Genus: Gallinula
  • Species: Gallinula chloropus
  • Authority: Linnaeus

Comments on taxonomy:
Subspecies occurring in Illinois G. c. cachinnaus *09,13*. Common name changed from common gallinule to common moorhen in 1982 revision of A.O.U. Checklist *19* other vernacular: Florida gallinule, blue peter, red-bellied mud hen, water chicken, etc. See *03,13*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Resident in north. Occassional migrant and summer resident in central and southern Illinois *01*. 1982 breeding season: 15 nest lake calumet, broods sighted at L. Calumet (5); Riverdale (1), Redwing Slough (1), Ela Road Marsh (1). Probable nesting Cuba Marsh and McDonald's Wood (Lake Co.). For others sighted see *18*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
Common moorhen was included on the threatened list for Illinois in 1977 *02*. This species population numbers are small and critical habitat is threatened *02,05*.


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir

Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types: No records.

Associated tree species: No records.

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Persistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Nonpersistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Narrowleaved persistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Persistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Nonpersistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Narrowleaved persistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Palustrine   Scrub/shrub   Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Persistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Nonpersistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater
Riverine Lower perennial Emergent vegetation Narrowleaved persistent Intermittently exposed/permanent nontidal Freshwater

Comments on species-habitat associations:
The common moorhen frequents freshwater marshes and ponds with emergent aquatic vegetation, primarily cattails and bulrushes *02*. Not necessarily large marshes, may be found in small patches of cattails at the edge of a lake or river *04*. During migration may occur in dusty fields, city boulevards, dry valleys *13*.

Important plant and animal association: Yellow-headed blackbird. Commonly associated in Illinois with the yellow-headed blackbird because of habitat similarities *02*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Nonforested wetland Special habitat Spring
Nonforested wetland Special habitat Fall
Wetland Special habitat Spring
Wetland Special habitat Fall
Marsh Special habitat Spring
Lakes and ponds Special habitat Spring
Lakes and ponds Special habitat Fall

Species-habitat interrelations: Deeper open marshes are apparently a habitat requirement, although artificial or abnadoned flooded depressions with cattail growth serve as occassional nest sites in northeastern Illinois *02*. A general consensus of literature concludes preferred habitat is typha-scirpus marshes, but other plant species are often also present, i.E. Phragmites, carex, sparganium, and rice were all mentioned *05*. Water depth usually deeper pools present accompanying marsh shallows *04, 05*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Wetland Special habitat Fall Terrestrial subsurface-roots, tubers, rhizomes of herbaceous plants
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Water surface-floating vascular plants
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface-rooted herbaceous plants at surface
Wetland Special habitat Spring/summer errestrial subsurface-roots, tubers, rhizomes of herbaceous plants
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface- arthropods
Terrestrial surface- invertebrates other than arthropods
Water surface-floating vascular plants
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface-rooted herbaceous plants at surface

Comments on feed-guilding:
Walks on floating vegetation picking food items off plant and water surface. Also on land, feeding on insects and plants, also dives for food. Food items include seeds, grass, rootlets, soft parts of water plants, snails, grasshoppers, various other insects and worms *04*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Wetland/td> Special habitat Fall Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
River/lake/marsh, vascular plants- floating, nonwoody, rooted
River/lake/marsh, vascular plants- emergent, nonwoody
River/lake/marsh, vascular plants- emergent, woody

Comments on breed-guilding:
Nest usually elevated slightly above water among robust emergents *02* usually around borders where water is not >2 ft. away *04*. Apparently copulation takes place in open water of marsh *04*.


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

UnknownUnknown

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Plants Unknown
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Roots
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Flowers
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Fruit/seeds
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Unknown
Mollusca Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Nymph
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Unknown
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva
Important:
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Roots
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Fruit/seeds
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Nymph
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Juvenile:
Insecta Unknown
Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Nymph
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Adult:
Plants Unknown
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Roots
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Flowers
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Fruit/seeds
Monocotyledoneae (monocots) Unknown
Annelida (segmented worms) Unknown
Mollusca Unknown
Mollusca: Gastropoda (snails) Unknown
Insecta Unknown
Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Nymph
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Nymph
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) Unknown
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) Unknown
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Larva

Comments on food habits: 
General: Seeds, roots, soft parts of succulent water plants, snails, other small mollusks, grasshoppers, various other insects and worms *04*. Wetmore (1916) reports 96.75% of diet was vegetative 90.75 grass and rootlets, seeds and various weeds 6%. 3.25% was insect and small mollusks *04*.
Juvenile: No vegetable food presented to young *11*. Adopt adult habits when independent *00*.
Adult: See comments on general food habits


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: seasonal wet depressions
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Vegetation mosaics/edges: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous (%): see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: vegetation-choked pond
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Ground cover- herbaceous (%): see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: vegetation-choked pond

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: seasonal wet depressions
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters

Resting juvenile:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters

Feeding adult:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: seasonal wet depressions
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters

Resting adult:

  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters

Breeding adult:

  • Biodegradable organics: clean waters that have not been polluted
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Aquatic habitats: typha-scirpus marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: ditches
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: oxbow
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Vegetation mosaics/edges: see comments
  • Ground cover- herbaceous (%): see comments
  • Vegetation successional stage: vegetation-choked pond

Comments on environmental associations:
General: See comments on high value habitat
Feeding juvenile: Assume seek food among aquatic vegetation where they live *00*.
Resting juvenile: Assume rest in nest, on brooding platforms and marsh vegetation *00*.
Feeding adult: Common moorhens seek food among aquatic vegetation of the wetlands where they live *04*. Food also obtained on dry land.
Resting adult: Rest on rafts of vegetation *14* and probably in dense marsh vegetation *00*.
Breeding adult: See comments on high-value habitat


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01*.

Physical description: Slate grey chicken-like bird; length 12-15 inches, wingspread 20-23 inches, wt. 14 oz. Sexes alike, female smaller. Chicken-like red bill with yellow tip and red frontal shield. Legs and feet yellow green, white lines along flanks and white undertail coverts. Immatures similar to adults but lighter in color and more brownish bill without red *03,13,16*.

Reproduction: Little information available for Illinois. Arrives on breeding grounds late April in Iowa and Wisc. With nesting beginning in early May *05*. Courtship likely begins during migration, continuing on breeding habitat *05*. Males establish territories and perform a ritualized display in the open water of the marsh *04*. Courtship behavior described in *04*. Female watches performance from seclusion of reeds. Male attracts female and pair bond is formed. Assume copulation takes place in water *00*. Who chooses nest site is unknown. Both sexes construct nest of primarily emergent vegetation (last years cattail growth, etc.) *05,09*. The nest is usually a shallow platform elevated slightly above water among robust emergents *02*. Krauth (1972) found nests in all types of emergent vegetation, concluding that cover was used in proportion to occurrence *05*. Nests usually placed in shallower parts or around borders where water not over 2 ft. All nests constructed with a sloping runway of rushes leading to the water. Some also have canopies of standing rushes *04,07*. Male often build other nest-like platforms on which to brood young *03,14*. May also use old muskrat or coot platforms *09*. The hen lays daily *05*. Eggs are cinnamon to olive buff, spotted or dotted with browns *03*. Clutch size from 4-17, usually 7-12, 44 x 31 mm (105) *04,09,13*. For summary of clutch sizes in N. America see *09*. Both sexes incubate. Bent (1926) reports incubation begins with 1st egg *04*, Krauth (1972) beginning with 5th egg *05* Terres (1980) reports 18-21 days, Bent (1926) reports approx. 21 days and Krauth (1972) suggests incubation poorly reported because period varies with each egg in clutch *05*. Krauth (1972) reports a 7 egg clutch requires 4 days to hatch *05*. Hatchlings are covered with black down, head and wings nearly naked, white beard *08*. Both sexes brood and feed young *05*. When dry, young leave nest *04*. Both sexes bring food to nest for 2-4 days, leading older chicks away from nest *11*. Young 1st feed themselves at 1 wk. and are capable of independent feeding at 3 wks., though parents feed for 6 wks., when young are able to fly. Young birds usually remain in parents territory for further 6 wks. *12*. Full growth is attained in approx. 10 wks. *05*. Sprunt & Chamberlain (1960) & Bent (1926) report 2 broods may be layed *04,13*. Seigfried & Frost (1975) report continuous breeding as a consequence of a continuously available favorable food supply *12*. Age at sexual maturity, min. and max. breeding ages unavailable. At two sites in La. 84.2% & 86.5% of eggs hatched *10* and at a 3rd site only 4 out of 143 eggs did not hatch *11*. Will lay replacement clutch *06*.

Behavior: Common moorhens are territorial but no estimates of size or home range size are available. Courtship is ritualized and described in *04*. May nest in small colonies *03*. Young are precocial and leave nest soon after hatching *04*. A sharp spur at bend of wing assists in climbing *04*. Feet are large with long toes allowing this species to walk on floating vegetation. Young birds may gather in groups to 'play' in the water. When feeding broods cluster behind providing parent who feeds in linear routes in deep water over a large area *11*. Red and yellow bill may serve as a releaser for chicks feeding behavior *11*. No plant material fed to young *11*.

Limiting factors: Loss of habitat most critical *02*. Prefers open water marshes which may be important in courtship. Enemies include largemouth bass, bowfin, gar, snapping turtles, snakes, crows, etc. *04,11*. Moorhens can dive to escape enemies, often hiding underwater with head or bill concealed among water plants *04*. Pollution appears to have no effect on clutch size or hatchability of eggs, though significance of certain insecticide residues upon reproduction in birds seems more closely related to chick survival, which is unavailable *10*. More information is needed.

Population parameters: The common moorhen is certainly less abundant than before but may still occupy suitable habitat throughout Illinois. Relative population trend is probably down as drainage, alteration and destruction of marshes continues *02,05*. In La. brood sizes decreased as chicks become older, more active and independent. Weather and predators may be causes of high chick mortality in their 1st few days *11*. In La. Bell & Cordes (1975) report percent decrease in brood size, egg - 10 days 40%, 10-25 days 30%, 25-40 days 20%. Broods decreased from 4.7 yng. To 2.6 yng. as of 40 days *11*. No information available on survival rates, sex ratio, or average lifespan. A bird of 6 yrs. 3 mos. was trapped and released (place unspecified) *21*.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining early stage of ecological succession
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Developing/maintaining edge (ecotones)
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Controlling refuse disposal (landfills)
  • Controlling pollution
  • Controlling pollution in aquatic habitats
  • Controlling water levels
  • Maintaining streams
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Creating/maintaining islands within permanent impoundments
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Creating/maintaining wetlands from non-wetlands
  • Protecting existing wetlands
  • Burning of wetlands to maintain successional stages
  • Restoration of wetlands (return flooded or drained areas to previous wetland conditions)
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining ditchbank vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • No-till farming
  • Developing/maintaining native vegetation

Adverse:

  • Channelization
  • Dredging
  • Controlling aquatic plants
  • Draining ponds/lakes
  • Draining wetlands
  • Removing bank vegetation
  • Clean farming
  • Uncontrolled grazing by domestic livestock
  • Strip mining

Comments on management practices:
Because information is lacking on the common gallinule in Illinois only generalized management practices may be suggested. Maintenance of open marsh is critical. Water level manipulation & prescribed burning suggested control measures for keeping open areas in marshes *02*. Artificial wetland sites in some regions of the state may supplement the natural breeding habitat of this species *02*. Immediate management needs are for census of population numbers at key times of year and preservation of deep water marshes *05*. See *05* for areas of needed study and investigation goals. The common moorhen is protected by the Illinois Endangered Species Act 1972 & the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 *02,17* & the Illinois Wildlife Code 1971 *22*.

 


REFERENCES

0. MALMBORG, P.L. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUS. POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. 156 P.

2. BOWLES, M.L., V.E. DIERSING, J.E. EBINGER AND H.C. SCHULTZ, EDS. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 189 P.

3. TERRES, J. 1980. AUDUBON SOCIETY: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED KNOPF, NEW YORK. 1109 P.

4. BENT, A.C. 1926. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN MARSH BIRDS. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 135.

5. HOLLIMAN, D.C., CHAIRMAN. 1977. RAILS AND GALLINULES. PAGES 45-122. IN G.C. SANDERSON (EDITOR). MANAGEMENT OF MIGRATORY SHORE AND UPLAND GAME BIRDS IN NORTH AMERICA. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FISH AND WILDLIFE AGENCIES. WASHINGTON, D.C. 358 P.

6. MILLER, R.F. 1910. NOTES ON THE FLORIDA GALLINULE (GALLINULA GALEATA) IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, PA. AUK 27(2):181-184.

7. PERKINS, A.E. 1922. BREEDING OF THE FLORIDA GALLINULE IN ONTARIO. AUK 39(4):564-565.

8. BURTCH, V. 1911. A NEST OF THE FLORIDA GALLINULE. AUK 28(1):108-109.

9. FREDRICKSON, L.H. 1971. COMMON GALLINULE BREEDING BIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT. AUK 88:914-919.

10. CAUSEY, M.K., F.L. BONNER, & J.B. GRAVES. 1968. DIELDRIN RESIDUES IN THE GALLINULES PORPHYRULA MARTINICA L. AND GALLINULA CHLOROPUS L. AND ITS EFFECT ON CLUTCH SIZE AND HATCHABILITY. BULL. ENVIRON. CONTAMINATION & TOXICOLOGY 3(5):274-283.

11. BELL, G.R. & C.L. CORDES. 1977. ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF COMMON AND PURPLE GALLINULES ON LACASSINE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, LOUISIANA. PROC. S.EAST ASSOC. OF GAME & FISH COMM. 31:295-299.

12. SIEGFRIED, W.R. & P.G.H. FROST. 1975. CONTINUOUS BREEDING AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIOUR IN THE MOORHEN GALLINULA CHLOROPUS. IBIS 117(1): 102-109.

13. SPRUNT, A. AND E. CHAMBERLAIN. 1970. SOUTH CAROLINA BIRD LIFE. UNIV. SOUTH CAROLINA PRESS, COLUMBIA. 655 P.

14. FORBUSH, E.H. 1925. BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS, VOL. I. NORWOOD PRESS, NORWOOD, MA. 481 P.

15. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1982. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT AUK 99(3).

16. PETERSON, R. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS. 4 ED. HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 384 P.

17. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERV. 1983. CODE OF FED. REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDL. & FISH. CHAP. 1. PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPEC. PUBL. FED. REGISTER. GEN. SERV. ADMIN. OCT. 1.

18. KLEEN, V.M. 1982. FIELD NOTES: BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 203:25-39.

19. NEWLON, M.C. 1982. CHANGES IN ILLINOIS BIRD NAMES IN 1982. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULL. 202:3-5.

20. MARTIN, A., H. ZIM AND A. NELSON. 1951. AMERICAN WILDLIFE AND PLANTS. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., NEW YORK. 500 P.

21. KENNARD, J.H. 1975. LONGEVITY RECORDS OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. BIRD-BANDING 46:55-73.

22. ILLINOIS DEPT. CONSERV. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILL. REVISED STATUTES 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 P.

 


 

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