Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Cinnamon teal
Anas cyanoptera

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Anseriformes
  • Family: Anatidae
  • Genus: Anas
  • Species: Anas cyanoptera
  • Authority: Vielliot

Comments on taxonomy:
There are 5 races of Anas cyanoptera. The subspecies found in North America is A. c. septentrionalium *03*. Other names: red-breasted teal, silver teal, red teal, river teal, South American teal, red duck *02,04*.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

Rare vagrant *01*; principally found in the western U.S. *15*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
The cinnamon teal is protected by the Illinois wildlife code of 1971 *16* and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 *17*.

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types: No records.

Associated tree species: No records.

 

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent vegetation Persistent
Non-persistent
Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Emergent vegetation Persistent
Non-persistent
Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Riverine   Emergent vegetation Persistent
Non-persistent
Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

Comments on species-habitat associations:
Breed on shallow lake margins, ponds, marshes, creeks, and other wetlands with sufficient vegetational cover and emergent food plants *02,07,13,15*. During migration a variety of water areas may be used, especially open water *05,07*.

Important plant and animal association: Saltgrass spp.; bulrush spp. Saltgrasses and bulrushes provide both food and nesting cover *03, 11,13,15*.

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Streams and canals
Lakes and ponds
Reservoirs
Bays and estuaries
Nonforested wetland
Wetland
Marsh
Artificial impoundment
River
Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All
Prairie
Sedge meadow
Special habitat Spring/summer

Species-habitat interrelations: Breeding habitat: shallow lake margins, ponds, sloughs, creeks, marshes, meadow wetlands andother water areas *02,06,07,15*. Dense vegetation important for nest cover, and brood rearing prefer saltgrasses and bulrushes *06,09,15*. Often attracted to alkaline waters *06,07*. Feed in small shallow waters with many submergent and emergent marsh plants *03,05,14,15*. Migrants utilize many aquatic habitats, require open water *05,07*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Marsh
Lakes and ponds
Streams
River
Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) All Water bottom-aquatic bed, rooted vascular plants
Water column- arthropods
Water surface-floating vascular plants
Water surface-rooted herbaceous plants at surface
Water surface-rooted herbaceous plants through surface
Water bottom-aquatic bed, arthropods
Water bottom-aquatic bed, invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water column- arthropods
Water column- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Water surface- arthropods
Water surface- invertebrates other than zooplankton or arthropods
Terrestrial surface-flowers and fruits of grass/grasslike vegetation

Comments on feed-guilding:
Cinnamon teal feed in small shallow waters usually by dabbling but may also dive for food or feed on the dry shoreline *05,15*. Food is primarily seeds and parts of submergent and emergent marsh plants. Also insects and mollusks *03,14,15,18*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Prairie
Marsh
Sedge meadow
Lakes and ponds
Streams
River
Not applicable (HVAL-HAB cover) Spring/summer Terrestrial surface
Terrestrial surface, marshy areas with hydrophytes but not hydric soils
Terrestrial surface, herbaceous litter
Terrestrial surface, grass and grasslike vegetation
Terrestrial surface, forb vegetation
Surface of water column-river/lake/marsh, unconsolidated rooted herbaceous plants

Comments on breed-guilding:
Cinnamon teal build nests of dead grasses and stems on the ground. Nests are concealed in tall grasses or in thick beds of cattails or reeds *02,03,05,15*. Nests are usually near shorelines of lakes, ponds, marshes, etc., or may be on islands *03,05,09,11*.

 


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is OMNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Leguminosae (pulses, pea) Unknown
Anacardiaceae (cashew) Unknown
Cactaceae (cactus) Unknown
Polygonaceae (buckwheat, rhubarb) Fruit/seeds
Chenopodiaceae (glasswort, saltwort) Unknown
Amaranthaceae (amaranthus) Unknown
Ranunculaceae (buttercup, marigold) Unknown
Malvaceae (mallow) Unknown
Haloragaceae (water milfoil) Unknown
Boraginaceae (bluebells, heliotrope) Unknown
Rubiaceae (buttonbush, bedstraw, quinine) Unknown
Poaceae (grass) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Sparganiaceae (bur-reed) Unknown
Zosteraceae (pondweed) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Mollusca Adult
Mollusca: Bivalvia (bivalves) Adult
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Adult
Ostracods (eucypris) Adult
Insecta Egg, larva, pupa, adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Adult, nymph
Hemiptera Adult
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva, adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Egg, larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva, pupa, adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Pupa, adult
Important:
Poaceae (grass) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Zosteraceae (pondweed) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva, adult
Adult:
Leguminosae (pulses, pea) Unknown
Anacardiaceae (cashew) Unknown
Cactaceae (cactus) Unknown
Polygonaceae (buckwheat, rhubarb) Fruit/seeds
Chenopodiaceae (glasswort, saltwort) Unknown
Amaranthaceae (amaranthus) Unknown
Ranunculaceae (buttercup, marigold) Unknown
Malvaceae (mallow) Unknown
Haloragaceae (water milfoil) Unknown
Boraginaceae (bluebells, heliotrope) Unknown
Rubiaceae (buttonbush, bedstraw, quinine) Unknown
Poaceae (grass) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Sparganiaceae (bur-reed) Unknown
Zosteraceae (pondweed) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Cyperaceae (bulrush, sedge) Leaves, fruit/seeds
Mollusca Adult
Mollusca: Bivalvia (bivalves) Adult
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) Adult
Ostracods (eucypris) Adult
Insecta Egg, larva, pupa, adult
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Adult, nymph
Hemiptera Adult
Coleoptera (beetles) Larva, adult
Tricoptera (caddisflies) Egg, larva
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitoes) Larva, pupa, adult
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) Pupa, adult

Comments on food habits: 
General: Most of the diet consists of plant parts and seeds, but insects and other animal foods are also eaten, especially in spring and summer *03,14,15,18*. Seeds and parts of sedges, grasses and pondweeds are important vegetable constituents of the diet *15,18*. Insects and their eggs, larvae and pupae constitute a high percentage of the animal portion eaten. Over half of the insects eaten may be beetle species *18*. Mollusks may be a common dietary item also *14,18*. If plant part eaten was not specified in literature, the "unknown" category was used.
Juvenile: Assume food habits of young similar to adult, see [FH] *00*.
Adult: See [FH] general and important food habits.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • pH: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: spring outlet/pool/branch
  • Aquatic habitats: borrow pit
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments
  • Unknown

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • pH: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: spring outlet/pool/branch
  • Aquatic habitats: borrow pit
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • pH: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: spring outlet/pool/branch
  • Aquatic habitats: borrow pit
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments

Feeding adult:

  • pH: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: spring outlet/pool/branch
  • Aquatic habitats: borrow pit
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments

Resting adult:

  • pH: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: spring outlet/pool/branch
  • Aquatic habitats: borrow pit
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments

Breeding adult:

  • pH: see comments
  • Aquatic habitat: shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
  • Water level: permanent
  • Water level: seasonally flooded
  • Water level: artificially flooded
  • Water depth preference: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: freshwater marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated offshore islands
  • Aquatic habitats: vegetated streambank
  • Aquatic habitats: sloughs, bayous
  • Aquatic habitats: prairie potholes
  • Aquatic habitats: stream weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: lake weedbeds
  • Aquatic habitats: marsh
  • Aquatic habitats: spring outlet/pool/branch
  • Aquatic habitats: borrow pit
  • Aquatic habitats: backwaters
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Leaf litter/ground debris/humus: see comments
  • Ecotones: old field/water
  • Ecotones: grassland/water
  • Grassland: see comments
  • Meadows: see comments
  • Grasses: see comments
  • Ground cover- grass (%): see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: Found in many aquatic habitats *02,06,07,15*. Dense vegetation provides nesting and brood rearing cover *06,09,15*. Often attracted to alkaline waters *06,07*. Prefer shallow water for feeding *03,05, 14,15*. No information available on limiting factors.
Feeding juvenile: Assume feeding habits of young similar to adult see [FA] *00*. After hatching young are led away from nest to brood rearing sites with dense cover *03,06,15*. Assume resting habits of juveniles similar to adult see [RA] *00*. Adults feed on plants, insects and mollusks in smaller, shallower water areas as along margins of lakes and ponds. Seeds and parts of submergent and emergent marsh plants are the major constituents of the diet. Grasses also are important *03,05,14,15,18*.
Resting juvenile: After hatching young are led away from nest to brood rearing sites with dense cover *03,06,15*. Assume resting habits of juveniles are similar to adult (see resting adult) *00*.
Feeding adult: Adults feed on plants, insects and mollusks in smaller, shallower water areas as along margins of lakes and ponds. Seeds and parts of submergent and emergent marsh plants are the major constituents of the diet. Grasses also are important *03,05,14,15,18*.
Resting adult: Resting and loafing sites are important. While the hen sits on the nest the drake stays at a "waiting site", usually within 100 yds. of the nest. Sites may be old muskrat houses, logs, points of land, ditch banks. Also loaf on small ponds or in cool windy weather, on the lee side of channels and dikes *07,15*.
Breeding adult: Many pair while on winter grounds. Cinnamon teal nest in a variety of aquatic habitats *02,07,13*. Nest is placed on ground in dense vegetation. Dead grasses are used to build the nest *06,13,15*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01*.

Physical description: 14-17 in. long, wingspan 24-26 in. Male: underparts and head rich reddish brown; back, rump, uppertail coverts, tail dull brown; undertail coverts black; powder-blue shoulder patch separated from irridescent green speculum by white stripe; feet and legs yellow; bill black. Male has scarlet eye. Female and immature mottled brown with blue shoulder patch white stripe and green speculum. Drake in eclipse plummage resembles hen. Female cinnamon teal is difficult to distinguish from female blue- winged teal *02,03,04,07*. For detailed descriptions of all plummages see Palmer 1976 *07*.

Reproduction: Most pair formation occurs on winter grounds. Pair- bonds are renewed each year *06,07*. During courtship ritualized movements and displays are common *06,07,12*. Copulation is preceded by mutual head-pumping *12*. On the breeding grounds the female selects the nest site. She builds the nest on the ground out of dead vegetation, usually grasses. The nest is concealed in dense thickets of grasses, cattails, or reeds *03,06,09,15*. In Utah preferred nesting cover is saltgrass *15*. The female adds down to the nest *06,13*. 4-16, (average 8.05) white or buff-pink eggs are laid April through July *02,15*. The female only incubates the eggs for 21-25 days *15*. Most drakes desert females during the third week of incubation. The drake retires to a "waiting site," usually within 100 ft. of the nest, from which he pursues intruders *03,07,15*. Soon after hatching the ducklings are led away from the nest to a brood rearing site, an area that provides dense escape cover and adequate foraging opportunities *03,15*. Young first fly when approximately 7 weeks old *15*. Nest success varies: California 56% of 125 nests 1 or more eggs successfully hatched *10*. Utah 84% of 325 nests successful *15*. Survival, according to Bellrose 1980 *03*: class I - 7.65 young per brood; class II - 6.83 young/brood; class III - 5.58 young/brood just before flight. Cinnamon teal hybridize with northern shoveler, blue-winged teal, mallard, and wood duck *02,15*. Most breed as yearlings *03,07*.

Behavior: On the breeding ground the male selects and defends the territory, which is usually no more than 30 sq. yards. Home ranges often overlap *12,15*. For a description of displays and calls see McKinney 1970 *12*. Cinnamon teal migrate relatively early in autumn. Most have left Utah by October (Spencer 1953) *02,15*. Spring migration occurs March-April *02*. Migrations to and from wintering grounds are in small groups *15*. Wintering grounds are in southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Central America. A principle wintering area is near Mexico City, Mexico *03,15*. Cinnamon teal forage in shallower waters for seeds, plant parts, insects, and mollusks by dabbling *03,05,15,18*. Spencer 1953 noted most feeding occurred in early morning and in late afternoon *15*.

Limiting factors: Cinnamon teal are nest parasitized by redheads, shovelers, coots, mallards, and ruddy ducks *03,08,13,15*. In Spencer's (1953) studies parasitism affected nest success *15*. Nest failures may also be attributed to adverse weather, flooding, disturbance by man (agricultural practices), and predation. Predators include: skunk, mink, weasel, raccoon, oppossum, coyote, dog, cat, rat, gull, magpie, crow and raven *03,05,07,09,15*. Skunks and gulls caused serious nest losses in Utah, (Spencer 1953) *15*. In 1949 approx. 1.9% of the ave. population was lost to botulism *15*. The encroachment of agriculture and subsequent loss of habitat may adversely affect this species *05*.

Population parameters: Cinnamon teal are only rare vagrants in Illinois *01*. They are rarely found east of the Rocky Mts. *02*. The principle breeding grounds are in Utah and California *15*. For maps of breeding, winter, and migratory ranges see Bellrose 1980 *03*, or Palmer 1976, *07*. Age ratios: in fall corrected values approx. even *03*. Sex ratios: (Utah, Spencer 1953) - in spring slightly more males than females, fluctuations from 106 to 115 males per 100 females *15*. Mortality: in first year, 71%; in second year 54% *03*. No information available on rates of increase, turnover rates, relative trends, longevity.

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining unique or special habitat features (wetlands, snags, caves, cliffs, talises, etc.)
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling pollution
  • Controlling sedimentation
  • Controlling water levels
  • Creating/maintaining supplemental water sources
  • Developing/maintaining submersed brush, timber, debris
  • Maintaining streams
  • Creating impoundments
  • Developing/maintaining lakes and ponds
  • Creating/maintaining islands within permanent impoundments
  • Developing/maintaining wetlands
  • Protecting existing wetlands
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining ditchbank vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Developing/maintaining streamside vegetation to prevent erosion and provide riparian habitat
  • Controlling wind and water erosion
  • Planting native vegetation
  • Seeding aquatic plants
  • Develop/maintain prairie
  • Regulating harvest of animal being described
  • Prohibiting hunting
  • Controlling undesirable vertebrate species (feral dogs, etc.)
  • Developing/maintaining water holes, ponds, potholes, etc.
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Estimating/maintaining nesting and escape cover
  • Providing artificial nesting and roosting sites (platforms, nest boxes, cones, baskets, burro)
  • Maintaining undisturbed resting areas for migrating birds
  • Creating impoundments
  • Developing islands for waterfowl

Adverse:

  • Draining ponds/lakes
  • Removing bank vegetation
  • Strip mining
  • Mowing

Existing:

  • Regulating harvest of animal being described
  • Prohibiting hunting

Comments on management practices:
Spencer's (Utah, 1953) suggested management practices include - controlled water dispersion, planting of preferred nesting cover in mosaics, construction of loafing sites, predator control. He also suggests hunters use retrievers to reduce crippling losses *15*. Use of steel shot benefits all waterfowl in reducing lead poisoning *20*. Waterfowl diseases need to be controlled. Loss of habitat leads to crowding and increases incidence of diseases such as avian cholera and botulism *15,21*. Erosion and subsequent sedimentation in the Illinois River valley has decreased numbers of species of aquatic plants utlized by waterfowl for food *23*.

 


REFERENCES

0. VANDERAH, G.C. 1985. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, IL. 61820. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILLINOIS STATE MUSEUM POP. SCI. SERIES VOL. IX. 156 PP.

2. TERRES, J.K. 1980. THE AUDUBON SOCIETY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. A.A. KNOPF NEW YORK, N.Y. 1109 PP.

3. BELLROSE, F.C. 1980. DUCKS, GEESE AND SWANS OF NORTH AMERICA. 3RD EDITION STOCKPOLE BOOKS, HARRISBURG, PA. 540 PP.

4. RIDGEWAY, R. 1895. THE ORNITHOLOGY OF ILLINOIS. PART I. VOLUME II. NAT. HIS. SURV. IL. SPRINGFIELD, IL. 282 PP.

5. BENT, A.C. 1923. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WILD FOWL. ORDER ANSERIFORMES (PART). U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. NO. 126.

6. JOHNSGARD, P.A. 1975. WATERFOWL OF NORTH AMERICA. INDIANA UNIV. PRESS, BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA. 575 PP.

7. PALMER, R.S. 1976. HANDBOOK OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. VOL. 2. WATERFOWL PART I. YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, LONDON. 521 PP.

8. JOYNER, D.E. 1973. INTERSPECIFIC NEST PARASITISM BY DUCKS AND COOTS IN UTAH. AUK 90(3):692-693.

9. MILLER, A.W. AND B.D. COLLINS. 1954. A NESTING STUDY OF DUCKS AND COOTS IN TULE LAKE AND LOWER KLAMATH NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES. CALIF. FISH AND GAME 40(1):17-37.

10. HUNT, E.G. AND A.E. NAYLOR. 1955. NESTING STUDIES OF DUCKS AND COOTS IN HONEY LAKE VALLEY. CALIF. FISH & GAME 41(4):295-314.

11. WILLIAMS, C.S. & W.H. MARSHALL. 1938. DUCK NESTING STUDIES, BEAR RIVER MIGRATORY BIRD REFUGE, UTAH, 1937. J. WILDL. MANAGE. 2(2):29 -48.

12. MCKINNEY, F. 1970. DISPLAYS OF FOUR SPECIES OF BLUE-WINGED DUCKS. LIVING BIRD 9:29-64.

13. HARRISON, H.H. 1975. A FIELD GUIDE TO BIRD'S NESTS. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. 257 PP.

14. MARTIN, A.C. ET AL. 1951. AMERICAN WILDLIFE AND PLANTS. MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., INC., NEW YORK, N.Y. 500 PP.

15. SPENCER, H.E., JR. 1953. THE CINNAMON TEAL (ANAS CYANOPTERA VIELLOT): ITS LIFE HISTORY, ECOLOGY, AND MANAGEMENT. M.S. THESIS UTAH STATE, LOGAN, UTAH.

16. ILLINOIS DEPT. OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61 WILDLIFE ART II. PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES 1979. WEST PUBL. CO. ST. PAUL, MN. 120 PP.

17. U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS TITLE 50 WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES CHAPTER 1 PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPECIAL PUBL. FED. REGISTER. GENERAL SERVICES ADMIN. OCT. 1.

18. MABBOT, D.C. 1920. FOOD HABITS OF SEVEN SPECIES OF SHOAL WATER DUCKS. U.S. DEPT. AGRIC. BULL. NO. 862. 67 PP.

19. SELL, D.L. 1979. FALL FOODS OF TEAL ON THE TEXAS HIGH PLAINS. SOUTHWESTERN NATURALIST 24(2):373-375.

20. BELLROSE, F.C. 1984. LEAD POISONING: A TRAGIC WASTE. IN: FLYWAYS. PIONEERING WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT IN NORTH AMERICA. U.S. DEPT. INTERIOR FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D.C. 517 PP.

21. FRIEND, M. 1984. WATERFOWL GET SICK TOO. IN FLYWAYS. PIONEERING WATERFOWL MANAGEMENT IN NORTH AMERICA. U.S. DEPT. INT. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. WASHINGTON, D.C. 517 PP.

22. ILLINOIS DEPT. OF CONSERVATION. 1984. 1984 WATERFOWL HUNTING INFORMATION. ILL. DEPT. CONS. SPRINGFIELD, IL. PAMPHLET.

23. BELLROSE, F.C. ET AL. 1979. WATERFOWL POPULATIONS AND THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF THE ILLINOIS RIVER VALLEY. IL. NAT. HIS. SURV. BULL. VOL. 32, ART. 1. 54 PP.

24. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS UNION. 1983. CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 6TH EDITION - ALLEN PRESS INC. LAWRENCE, KN. 877 PP.

 


 

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