Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Brown creeper
Certhia americana

 

Taxonomy
Occurence in Illinois
Status
Habitat associations
Guilds
Food-habits
Environmental associations
Life history
Management practices
References


TAXONOMY

 

  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Certhiidae
  • Genus: Certhia
  • Species: Certhia americana
  • Authority: Bonaparte

Comments on taxonomy:
The brown creeper, Certhia americana, was split from the extralimital treecreeper, C. familiaris, in 1982 by the American Ornithologists' Union *19*. Other names, American brown creeper, common creeper, little brown creeper, tree creeper.

 


OCCURENCE IN ILLINOIS

The brown creeper occurs in Illinois as a common migrant and winter resident and occassional summer resident *01*. The Cache, Kankakee, Mississippi, Sangamon and Sugar Rivers appeared (1981) to be the center of distribution for nesting populations in Illinois *02*. Habitat associations will be entered for "all seasons" because of a future potential breeding populations in Illinois *00*.

 


STATUS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories
Forest Service Categories: S = recommended for regional sensitive status, F = forest listed species, M = management indicator species

Federal Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed for listing
Candidate for proposal Recovery plan approved Recovery plan received (USFWS)
Recovery plan in preparation Under notice of review Delisted
Migratory EPA indicator Forest Serv.- Shawnee species (F)

State Status:

Endangered Threatened Proposed

Other:

Game Furbearer Nongame protected
Sportfish Commercial Pest None of the above

Comments on status:
Migrant (winters, occassionally breeds). Due to its small numbers and threatened floodplain habitat the brown creeper is considered endangered in Illinois. Nesting may be sporadic and general knowledge of this species is inadequate *02*. Recently, spring and summer sitings have increased in Illinois which may increase the breeding potential. The last successful nest observed was in 1980, Coles Co. Brown creepers have been sited in Illinois during the 1981 and 1982 breeding seasons. Territoriality was observed but no nests were located and the brown creeper has been shown to be relatively widespread throughout some of Illinois' river bottomland forests *14*. The brown creeper is also protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act 1918 *17* and the Illinois Wildlife Code

 


HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

Items in bold indicate applicable categories

General habitat:

Unknown Terrestrial Aquatic Riparian

USFS timber inventory forest size class:

Unknown Unstocked Seedling Sapling
Seedling/sapling Pole Mature Over mature

Land use and land cover:

Unknown   Urban Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Transportation, communication
Complex industrial/commercial
Mixed
Other
Agricultural Crop, pasture
Orchards, groves, nurseries
Feedlot
Other
Rangeland Herbaceous
Shrub and brush
Mixed
Forestland Deciduous
Evergreen
Mixed
Water Stream
Lake
Reservoir
Bay
Wetland Forest
Non-forest
Barren Salt flat
Beach
Sand
Rock
Mine
Transit
Mix

 


Forest cover types:

Cover typeStructural stageCanopy closureSeason
All Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
71-100% Spring/summer
All Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
71-100% Fall/winter

Associated tree species:

  • Large-toothed aspen
  • Basswood
  • Beech
  • Paper birch
  • Yellow birch
  • Boxelder
  • Cedar
  • Chestnut
  • Bald cypress
  • American elm
  • Tupelo gum
  • Hackberry
  • Bitternut hickory
  • Red maple
  • Sugar maple
  • Black oak
  • White oak
  • White pine
  • Species other than those on IFWIS list

National wetland inventory classifications:

SystemSubsystemClassSubclassWater regime modifiersWater chemistry
Palustrine   Forest Dead trees Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Palustrine   Forest Evergreen Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Upland   Forest Dead trees Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Upland   Forest Deciduous Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified
Upland   Forest Evergreen Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified

Comments on species-habitat associations:
The brown creeper occupies deciduous and mixed woodlands with cypress swamps and floodplain forest apparently being its primary habitat. In illinois *02*. Associated tree species listed were obtained from michigan. Others include balsam fir, eastern hemlock and black spruce *05*. Dead trees with peeling bark are preferred for nesting, consequently Dutch elm disease may have allowed the spread of the brown creepers' breeding range in Illinois, but this phenomenon seems only temporary *05*.

Important plant and animal association: Dead or dying trees. Nest placement is usually between a peeling slab of bark and tree trunk *02* (a variety of tree species).

High value habitats

HabitatStructural stageSeason
Eastern forests (broadleaf): maple-basswood forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Eastern forests (broadleaf): oak-hickory forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Eastern forests (broadleaf & needleleaf): southern floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Bald cypress-tupelo Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Silver maple-American elm Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Upland forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Fall/winter
Mesic upland forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Wet-mesic upland forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All
Swamp Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer
Forested bog Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer

Species-habitat interrelations: Type (floodplain forest) function (breeding/feeding) value (high) season (usually fall/winter but small fraction spring/summer). See comments for habitat associations. The brown creeper will use a variety of tree species for feeding and breeding but location (dense relatively mature stand) and condition (dead) of tree seem to be important in breeding *00,04,06*.

 


GUILDS

Feed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonFeed-guilds
Forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
All Tree bole - arthropods
Tree bole - invertebrates other than arthropods

Comments on feed-guilding:
The brown creeper is a member of the bark foraging guild. This species does not disturb the bark as do nuthatches or woodpeckers but picks items from cracks and crevices and off bark surface *05*.

Breed-guilding:

HabitatStructural stageSeasonBreed-Guilds
Floodplain forest Mature
(9" dia. & 100 yrs. old)
Spring/summer Tree bole - broad-leaved deciduous, in or under bark
Tree bole - needle-leaved deciduous, in or under bark
Tree bole - broad-leaved evergreen, in or under bark
Tree bole - needle-leaved evergreen, in or under bark

Comments on breed-guilding:
Actual location of copulation is unavailable, possibly within tree canopy or shrubs. Other reproductive activity takes place under slabs of bark next to trunk *03,04,05*


FOOD-HABITS

Trophic level is CARNIVORE

Food itemLife stage/plant part
Pinaceae (pine family) Fruit/seeds
Fagaceae (beech, oak) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass) Fruit/seeds
Invertebrates Egg/fetus
Invertebrates Larva
Invertebrates Pupa
Invertebrates Juvenile
Invertebrates Adult
Arthropoda See comments
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) See comments
Insecta See comments
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) See comments
Hemiptera See comments
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) See comments
Coleoptera (beetles) See comments
Lepidoptera (butterfiles, moths) See comments
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) See comments
Important:
Invertebrates Egg/fetus
Invertebrates Larva
Invertebrates Pupa
Invertebrates Juvenile
Invertebrates Adult
Arthropoda See comments
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) See comments
Insecta See comments
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) See comments
Hemiptera See comments
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) See comments
Coleoptera (beetles) See comments
Lepidoptera (butterfiles, moths) See comments
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) See comments
Juvenile:
Invertebrates Egg/fetus
Invertebrates Larva
Invertebrates Pupa
Invertebrates Juvenile
Invertebrates Adult
Arthropoda See comments
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) See comments
Insecta See comments
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) See comments
Hemiptera See comments
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) See comments
Coleoptera (beetles) See comments
Lepidoptera (butterfiles, moths) See comments
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) See comments
Adult:
Pinaceae (pine family) Fruit/seeds
Fagaceae (beech, oak) Fruit/seeds
Poaceae (grass) Fruit/seeds
Invertebrates Egg/fetus
Invertebrates Larva
Invertebrates Pupa
Invertebrates Juvenile
Invertebrates Adult
Arthropoda See comments
Arachnida (spiders, ticks, scorpions, daddy longlegs) See comments
Insecta See comments
Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches) See comments
Hemiptera See comments
Homoptera (cicadas, aphids) See comments
Coleoptera (beetles) See comments
Lepidoptera (butterfiles, moths) See comments
Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees) See comments

Comments on food habits: 
General: The brown creeper is primarily insectivorous taking a variety of insect types and life stages *03,04,05*. A small amount of vegetable matter may also be taken, chiefly mast, seeds and nuts.
Juvenile: Juvenile food habits seem identical to adult *05*. Insect type or proportion may differ due to abundance and seasonal variation (chiefly insect food).
Adult: See comments on general food habits.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

General:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Tree cavities: cavities in dead/dying trees
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Unknown
  • Unknown

Limiting:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Canopy closure (%) of trees: see comments
  • Preferred trees: see comments
  • Overstem trees- ave. dbh: see comments
  • Unknown

Egg

  • Unknown

Feeding juvenile:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Resting juvenile:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Tree cavities: cavities in dead/dying trees
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Feeding adult:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Resting adult:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Tree cavities: cavities in dead/dying trees
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Breeding adult:

  • Flood plain: see comments
  • Aquatic habitats: swamp
  • Decaying plants: see comments
  • Tree cavities: cavities in dead/dying trees
  • Coniferous forest: see comments
  • Hardwood forest: see comments

Comments on environmental associations:
General: See comments on species habitat associations and comments on breeding adult associations.
Feeding juvenile: See [FA] feeding adult.
Resting juvenile: Aside from the nest, fledglings are known to rest below a tree crotch, under a limb or straight on vertical tree trunk (that opposite wind direction). Juveniles form family roosting groups at night, drawn close together, heads pointing inward in tight circle *05*.
Feeding adult: Wherever relatively mature forest afford a suitable supply of insect food items.
Resting adult: Adults are known to rest clinging to trunk of large trees (opposite wind direction), under horizontal limbs or sometimes on rough walls (stucco) of building *03,04*. Adults do not join juvenile family roosting groups *05*.
Breeding adult: The brown creeper almost invariable nests on dead or dying trees where most of the bark has been peeled off. The nest is placed between a loose slab of bark and the trunk. Brown creepers in Illinois tend to prefer floodplain forests or cypress swamps for breeding *02*. Brown creepers winter wherever relatively mature forests occur *12*. A humid atmosphere, dense tree growth, low sun penetration, and a considerable extent of wild, undisturbed woodland were characteristics dictating the distribution of brown creepers in mass. *04*.


LIFE HISTORY

Origin: Native *01,19*

Physical description: Length 5.0-5.75 inches; wingspread 7-8 inches. Sexes outwardly alike. Small, slender bird brown above with speckles and streaks of white, rufous rump and tail, underparts white, white line over eye. Bill slender, decurved and pointed. Tail is long, feathers are stiffened and pointed. Juvenile plumage resembles adult but not as dark *03,13,16,18*.

Reproduction: Little information on nesting ecology is available for Illinois *02*. Most detailed information is taken from Michigan. The brown creeper is considered a migrant in Illinois, arriving in late Sept. and usually leaving by late April *01*. It is known that the brown creeper breeds in Illinois and the species may be expanding its breeding range which may increase Illinois' breeding population. In Michigan, territorial singing occurs throughout April, May, and June. The stage of breeding cycle varies throughout the population and eggs, nestlings and fledglings may be present *05*. The male sings from vertical perches from the tops of trees (which in Michigan varied from dense stands of cedar to the barkless remains of dead elm *05*). The male flies from branch to branch singing 1-8 songs/minute and up to 4 songs/branch *05*. The female is attracted to the displaying male. The ensuing courtship includes display flights, courtship chases, wing-fluttering and courtship feeding *05*. The adults continue these displays throughout the nesting cycle perhaps to maintain the pair-bond. Both sexes appear to search for the nest site but the final decision may be up to the female. After the site is chosen the female builds the nest. The male is attentive and may gather material and deliver it to female *05*. Materials usually reflect location (twigs, bark, spider and insect cocoons, feathers, moss, grasses) and the size of each hammock shaped nest conforms to the size of the nesting crevice *05*. Nests are almost invariably put under a loose slab of bark against the tree trunk *02,03,04,05,09, 10,12,16*. In Michigan all nests were placed on dead trees. Nests have occasionally been found in knot holes, old woodpecker holes, and once behind the shutter of a cabin *03,04,05*. Usually, trees with only a few pieces of bark remaining are chosen. Nest height is rather low, varying from 1.5-4 m *04,05*. For 2 nests observed, construction took 6-7 days *05*. No information on copulation is available. Egg laying began the morning after nest completion (Mich.) *05*. Egg dates include: Mass. (6 May-23 May); ME. (31 May-23 June); Ontario (14 July); Calif. (19 May-11 June); New York (17 May-26 May); Wash. (5 May-31 May) *04,16*. Female lays one egg a day in the early morning. Average clutch size 5-6 (4-8) *03,04,05,09,16*. Eggs are white, sparingly marked with small dots and blotches concentrated in ring around larger end; 15 x 12 mm, 0.8-1.0 gm. *04,05*. Spots are shades of brown. Incubation begins after clutch is complete and lasts from 15-17 days *05*. Female only incubates and male feeds her, though she may forage on her own. Upon hatching, young are pink, blind, and naked except for dark grey natal down on head *05*. The female alone broods the young but the male does help to feed. Courtship feeding ceases here. Day old young measure 30-34 mm *05*. At 8 days eyes open; 10 days brooding stops (depending on weather); and day 12 nestlings climb about nest cup under bark *05*. Both adults gather food and feed 1 nestling per trip *00*. In Mich., fledging occurred 15-16 days after hatching, where Bent (1948) reports fledging occurs at 13-14 days *04,05*. 9 Days after fledging young glean bark but are fed mostly by parents, at 11 days foraged for themselves more than received from parents and at 17 days still followed parents and begged for food *05*. From mid-July-Oct. No family groups were observed in Mich. But Bent (1965) states young remain with their parents until Sept. *05*. Nesting success in Michigan was 58%. A principle cause of nest loss was bark scale alteration caused by rain, wind, brood parasitism (1), and human disturbance *05*.

Behavior: No information is available for Illinois. The brown creeper is usually solitary in its habits. It may be seen foraging near groups of kinglets, chickadees or titmice *03,13*. Also, this species may migrate in small groups of 3-6 individuals *04*. During breeding season, brown creepers are territorial. It is unclear who chooses the territory, but it is probably the male. In Mich., territory sizes ranged from 2.3 to 6.4 ha *05*. The birds holding the smaller territories showed the greatest vocal defense *05*. In Illinois, it was reported that 24 territories were found in 10 1/2 km in the region of Marshall and Woodford County conservation areas *14*. There is no available information on home ranges but in Michigan adults gather food for nestlings over 150 m from nest tree *05*. When building the nest, materials were collected from a radius of 100 m around nest site *05*. Brown creepers are known to roost at night. Upon fledging, young birds form family group roosts where heads are pointed inward and individuals form a tight circle. Adult birds do not attend these family groupings but also roost clinging to a tree trunk, underside of a branch or other sheltered places. Roost sites are usually on the lee side of trees *05*. Brown creepers have a characteristic foraging pattern of starting at the base of a tree, spiralling up in search of insect prey. When a certain height on the trunk is attained the creeper flies down to the base of the next tree and begins his spiral all the while probing cracks and crevices for food *03,04,05,13,16*. This species may take an occassional hop backwards or sideways to reinvestigate but almost invariably travels upward or along branches away from the trunk.

Limiting factors: This species' nest site is characteristic and unique the brown creeper seems to be dependent on dead or dying trees *04, 05*. The flood plain forest in Illinois may be essential and are the only recorded breeding areas of this species *14*. In Mass., conditions which determine the distribution of brown creepers are apparently a very moist, humid atmosphere, dense evergreen (tree) growth, low sun penetration, and considerable extent of wild woodland which is not disturbed by man *04*. Human disturbance is known to cause nest abandonment *05*. Nest loss is also caused by rain and high winds altering the bark slab under which the nest is built *05*. This may allow entrance of the elements, predators, or nest parasites. Enemies include shrikes, raptors, red squirrels *04, 05*. Only 2 described accounts of cowbird parasitism were available *05*. Nest parasitism does not appear significant for this species.

Population parameters: No information is available for Illinois. In the eastern U.S., the brown creeper appears to be expanding its nesting range southward and downslope in mountainous regions. It is thought that Illinois birds may be participants *07*. Dutch elm disease may have allowed the spread of the brown creeper's breeding range through the increased availability of nest sites *05*. This seems only temporary, though. In Michigan there appeared to be a marked increase in the brown creeper population from 1946, when density was approx. 2 pair/40 ha., to 1971 when numbers were estimated at 5 pairs/6.8 ha *05*. It was suggested that the increase in dead balsam fir trees from 1946-71 could account for the creeper population. It appears the availability of nest sites may be a principle factor in attracting creepers. Mortality rates, survival rates, sex ratio, or average lifespan are unavailable. A brown creeper (C. familiaris) collected in Germany was 6 yrs. 9 mos. 10 days old *11*. In Michigan, brown creepers suffered a 40.4% egg mortality (38 out of 94 did not hatch) and a 14.0% nestling mortality (7 out of 56 died).

 


MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Beneficial:

  • Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas
  • Maintaining natural areas and nature preserves
  • Preserving endangered species habitat
  • Preserving sensitive species habitat
  • Performing special survey prior to prescription
  • Performing field survey prior to prescription
  • Controlling land use and human activities
  • Seasonal restriction of human use of habitats
  • Controlling pollution
  • Developing/maintaining riparian habitat
  • Seed tree method of silviculture- preparation cut
  • Forest protection
  • Deferring for old growth in forest areas
  • Deferring for special management (e.g. for cavities and snags) in forest areas
  • Developing/maintaining mature hardwood forest
  • Periodic thinning of mast producing trees to maintain mast production
  • Maintaining forests
  • Restricting human disturbance during migration, breeding, and nesting
  • Estimating/maintaining nesting and escape cover
  • Maintaining large trees for denning, nesting, or roosting

Adverse:

  • Strip mining
  • Cutting and deforestation
  • Clearcutting forests
  • Stand clearcutting
  • Shelterwood method of silviculture
  • Salvage thinning- mortality cuts in forest areas
  • Salvage thinning- sanitation cuts in forest areas
  • Forest protection- insect pest control
  • Forest protection- disease pest control
  • Removal of old trees

Existing:

  • Performing special survey prior to prescription

Comments on management practices:
Until more is known about the brown creeper in Illinois management recommendations can only be general. The preservation of the flood plain forest in Illinois is of critical importance *02*. Also maintainance of large dead or dying trees. Brown creepers are known to abandon nests because of human disturbance therefore restriction of known nesting areas would be beneficial *04,05*. In California, slabs of bark were nailed to trees in order to provide nesting sites *10*. When relatively mature trees are inundated by water management practices, etc. near Illinois' large river systems, dead trees might be left to observe if nesting occurs. Brown creepers are known to utilize inundated areas *04*. The brown creeper is protected under the Illinois Endangered Species Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act *02,17*, and The Illinois Wildlife Code, 1071 *20*.


REFERENCES

0. MALMBORG, PATTI L. 1984. ILL. NAT. HIST. SURV., 607 E. PEABODY DR., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. (217)333-6846.

1. BOHLEN, H.D. 1978. AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF ILLINOIS. ILL. STATE MUS., POP. SCI. SER., VOL. IX. P. 91.

2. BOWLES, M. 1981. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED VERTEBRATE ANIMALS AND VASCULAR PLANTS OF ILLINOIS. ILL. DEPT. OF CONSERV. P. 35, 50.

3. TERRES, J.K. 1980. THE AUDUBON SOCIETY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. ALFRED A. KNOPF. NEW YORK. PP. 117-118.

4. BENT, A.C. 1948. LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN NUTHATCHES, WRENS, THRASHERS AND THEIR ALLIES. U.S. NATL. MUS. BULL. # 195.

5. DAVIS, C.M. 1978. A NESTING STUDY OF THE BROWN CREEPER. LIVING BIRD 17:237-264.

6. WILLSON, M.F. 1970. FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF SOME WINTER BIRDS OF DECIDUOUS WOODS. CONDOR 72:169-174.

7. GEORGE, W.G. 1972. BREEDING STATUS OF THE PURPLE GALLINULE, BROWN CREEPER AND SWAINSON'S WARBLER IN ILLINOIS. WILSON BULL. 84(2): 208-210.

8. WILLIAMS, J.B. & G.O. BATZLI. 1979. WINTER DIET OF A BARK-FORAGING GUILD OF BIRDS. WILSON BULL. 91(1):126-131.

9. HALL, G.A. 1963. BROWN CREEPER NESTING IN WEST VIRGINIA. WILSON BULL. 75(3):278-279.

10. LEGG, K. 1966. LOOK UNDER THE BARK. AUDUBON MAG. 68:193-194.

11. RYDZEWSKI, W. 1974. BANDING AND LONGEVITY. BIRD BANDING 47(3):279- 281.

12. MENGEL, R.M. 1965. THE BIRDS OF KENTUCKY. ORNITHOL. MONOGR. NO. 3. PP. 342-343.

13. SPRUNT, A. AND E.B. CHAMBERLAIN. 1970. SOUTH CAROLINA BIRD LIFE. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA PRESS, COLUMBIA. PP. 385-386.

14. KLEEN, V. FIELD NOTES: BREEDING SEASON. ILLINOIS AUDUBON BULLETIN. ILLINOIS AUDUBON SOCIETY, WAYNE, IL. 1980/81 #195. P. 43. 1981/82 199. P. 33. 1982/83 203. P. 25,33.

15. MARTIN, A.C., H.S. ZIM, AND A.L. NELSON. 1951. AMERICAN WILDLIFE & PLANTS. MCGRAW HILL BOOK CO., INC. NEW YORK.

16. FORBUSH, E.H. 1929. BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. VOL. III. NORWOOD PRESS, NORWOOD MASS. PP. 353-355.

17. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERV. 1983. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS. TITLE 50. WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES. CHAPTER 1. PP. 11-18. 50 CFR 10.13. LIST OF MIGRATORY BIRDS. SPEC. PUBL. FEDERAL REGISTER. GENERAL SERV. ADMIN. OCT. 1.

18. PETERSON, R.T. 1980. A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS. HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO., BOSTON. P. 212.

19. THIRTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS UNIONS. CHECKLIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. SUPPLEMENT TO AUK VOL 99(3).

20. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 1980. CONSERVATION LAWS. CH. 61. WILDLIFE. ART. II PAR. 2.2. REPRINTED FROM ILLINOIS REVISED STATUTES, 1979. WEST PUBL. CO., ST. PAUL, MN. 120 PP.

 


 

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