Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Zizania palustris
Wild rice, Northern wild rice
Taxonomy

Synonyms: Zizania interior, Zizania aquatica, Zizania aquatica interior, Zizania palustris var. interior

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

  • Magnoliophyta

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

J
0
F
0
M
0
A
0
M
0
J
0
J
0
A
0
S
0
O
0
N
0
D
0

Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Monocot, annual

Roots: adventitious

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; entire leaf margin; Parallel leaf venation; awl-shaped leaf shape

Inflorescence: panicle

Flowers: unisexual, monoecious; 3 merous; complete; hypogynous ovary position

Fruit: grain

Physiology: autotrophic

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Species is distributed in shallow water.

ILPIN Notes: Swink et al. comment that some of the modern stands may have been planted to attract wildfowl. Species is used as grain for breakfast and a substitute for ordinary rice, especially with fowl. It is used by Native Americans for flour, bread, soup thickening, and to cook with wild meats. It makes alot of pollen, but appears unimportant in producing hayfever. Species is found throughout the state, except absent in most southern counties. Species grows in water; swamps; borders of ponds and streams. Species has large panicles (to 60 cm long); staminate spikelets below on panicle, spreading and pendulous; pistillate spikelets apically and panicle, erect, ascending. Awns on pistilalte lemmas are very long (1-6 cm.). Awns on staminate lemmas are absent or to 3 mm. Versus var. aquatica, this variety has complete smooth pistillate lemmas.

Functional Relationships:

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] : yes
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value:
  • Cover Value:

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 9
  • Chicago Area: 10

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