Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Zizania aquatica
Water oats, Southern wild rice, Annual wild rice, Indian wild rice
Taxonomy

Synonyms:

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

J
0
F
0
M
0
A
0
M
0
J
0
J
0
A
0
S
0
O
0
N
0
D
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Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Monocot, annual

Roots: adventitious

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; entire leaf margin; Parallel leaf venation; awl-shaped leaf shape

Inflorescence: panicle

Flowers: unisexual, monoecious; 3 merous; complete; hypogynous ovary position

Fruit: grain

Physiology: autotrophic

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Species is distributed in fresh water, sloughs with soft mud bottoms; water 6"-3' deep.

ILPIN Notes: This is one of the tallest grasses in Illinois - large, full panicles with unisexual spikelets borne on the same branches. Marshbirds and shorebirds eat seeds as food. Its use may be limited in Illinois. Form - seeds planted in fall or spring at 50-100 lbs./acre; broadcast 11, 340 seeds/lb. Seed company numbers: 1, 11. Species is found throughout Illinois, except in southern counties. Species is used as cereal, flour and soup thickener. It is used especially as a breakfast food and accompaniment for meats. It is high-priced, used sparingly today. It is a major food of some Native Americans in the mid portions of Canada and the U.S.

Functional Relationships:

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] : yes
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value:
  • Cover Value:

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 3017
  • Chicago Area: 9

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