Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Celtis occidentalis
Small hackberry, Hackberry
Taxonomy

Synonyms: Celtis occidentalis canina, Celtis occidentalis pumila, Celtis occidentalis var. canina, Celtis occidentalis var. pumila, Celtis occidentalis var pumila

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

  • Magnoliophyta

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
View all images. View all at PhytoImages.
Species Distribution
If map does not appear refresh browser Refresh
Click map to view & download detailed occurrence records

County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

J
0
F
0
M
0
A
0
M
0
J
0
J
0
A
0
S
0
O
0
N
0
D
0

Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Dicot-woody, perennial

Roots: primary

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; serrate leaf margin; Pinnate leaf venation; lanceolate, reniform leaf shape

Inflorescence: other

Flowers: perfect, unisexual, monoecious; incomplete, not petals; hypogynous ovary position

Fruit: drupe

Physiology: autotrophic; C3 C02 fixation

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Found in sandy or rocky areas. Found on rich banks, bottoms, and rocky slopes.

ILPIN Notes: Seed company numbers: 4, 14, 16, 17, 20, 22, 27, 28, 29, 32 Tree form - seedlings, bare root, balled & burlapped, seeds. May causes hayfever; frost ripened fruit are edible; not recommended as a street tree because commonly infected with witches-broom. Polygamous-unisexual and perfect on the same tree. Terrestrial furbearers eat the fruit. Regarding small non-game bird food value, this pertains especially to mockingbirds, robins. Flowers in fascicles; leaves leathery, asymmetrical at base; bark becoming warty; drupes orange-red at maturity; branches are often disfigured by 'witches brooms' which are caused by the mite Eriophyses. May cause hayfever. Frost ripened fruit are edible. Not recommended as a street tree because commonly infected with witches'-broom. Polygamous-unisexual and perfect on same tree. Flowers in fascicles; leaves more or less smooth on the upper surface, more symmetrical than other varieties. Drupes purple or black. May cause hayfever; frost ripened fruit are edible; not recommended as a street tree because commonly infected with witches-broom. Flowers in fascicles; leaves asymmetrical at the base and more or less smooth on the upper surface; drupes purple or black; smaller tree than other varieties.

Functional Relationships:

  • Pollinators insects (wind)

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] : yes-qualified
  • Showy Flowers: low

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value:
  • Cover Value: small non-game bird: good

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 3
  • Chicago Area: 3

Post a Comment or Question About this Plant
Name

Email address (required)

Comment? Question? 300 word limit (required)




Enter the text code above (required)

Note: All submissions are moderated and only some are posted. Posted comments may be edited for length. An email address will not be posted, but it is required for communication with the site moderator. Comments focused outside of Illinois and neighboring states may be posted, but more attention will be given to Illinois centered information. Thanks for your interest.