Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Xanthium spinosum
Spiny cockelbur
Taxonomy

Synonyms:

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

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F
0
M
0
A
0
M
0
J
0
J
0
A
0
S
0
O
0
N
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D
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Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: South America

Species Description

General: Dicot-herb, annual

Roots:

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; entire, dentate, lobed (pinnately), parted (pinnately) leaf margin; Pinnate leaf venation; oblong, lanceolate leaf shape

Inflorescence: head

Flowers: unisexual, monoecious; incomplete, not sepals; green; epigynous ovary position

Fruit: achene

Physiology: autotrophic

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Waste ground, fields, and along roadsides.

ILPIN Notes: Involucral bracts with spiny tips; involucre bur-like; this species has a 3-parted spline at the leaf base, and leaves narrowed at both ends; leaves are white-downy beneath. Regarding leaf venation, species may also be palmate. Cocklebur sprouts will occur thorughout the growing season, if newly emerged land, as found on margins of drying ponds, is available. Staminate flowers are in terminal or axillary clusters. Pistillate flowers are in axillary clusters below the staminate ones.

Functional Relationships:

  • Pollinators insects (wind)

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] :
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value:
  • Cover Value:

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State:
  • Chicago Area:

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