Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Juniperus virginiana
Eastern red cedar
Taxonomy

Synonyms:

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
Click map to view & download detailed occurrence records

County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

J
0
F
0
M
0
A
0
M
0
J
0
J
0
A
0
S
0
O
0
N
0
D
0

Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Conifer, perennial

Roots: primary

Shoots: opposite leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; entire leaf margin; needle-shaped, hastate leaf shape

Inflorescence: no

Flowers: unisexual, dioecious

Fruit: no

Physiology: autotrophic; C3 C02 fixation

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Old fields, rarely bottomlands and swamps.

ILPIN Notes: Fleshy part of the cone is edible. 2, 18, 22, 23, 25, 28, 33, 35, 36, 37, 52. Leaves of two types, young are needle-like; mature leaves scale-like. Male cones in small, narrow, yellowish spikes; female cones are in small, ovoid, purplish clusters; mature cones dark blue and berry-like. Bark reddish-brown, splitting into long shreds. Fruit eaten by both terrestrial and aquatic furbearers. Fruit eaten by many small mammals, especially white-footed mouse. Fruit also eaten by many small non-game birds, especially evening grosbeak and cedar waxwing.

Functional Relationships:

  • Pollinators insects (wind)

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] : yes-qualified
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value: deer: yes; upland game birds: yes; small non-game bird: yes; small mammals: yes; aquatic species: yes
  • Cover Value:

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 1
  • Chicago Area: 2

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